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Title: Single order x-ray diffraction with binary sinusoidal transmission grating

Abstract

All existing x-ray dispersive devices including crystals, multilayers and diffraction gratings generate spectra in multiple orders. In this letter the authors describe how an axis symmetrically distributed sinusoidal-shaped aperture with binary transmittance values can be used to disperse x rays and with a superior diffraction pattern where, along its symmetry axis, all higher-order diffractions can be effectively suppressed. Hence this sophisticated dispersive element generates pure soft x-ray spectra in the first diffraction order, free from interference from higher diffraction orders.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. X-ray Optics Group, Institute for Quantum Optics and Electronics, Friedrich-Schiller-University, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany) and Research Center of Laser Fusion, National Key Laboratory of Laser Fusion, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China)
  2. (Germany)
  3. (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20971804
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 90; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2435618; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; APERTURES; CRYSTALS; DIFFRACTION GRATINGS; INTERFERENCE; SOFT X RADIATION; X-RAY DIFFRACTION

Citation Formats

Cao, L. F., Foerster, E., Fuhrmann, A., Wang, C. K., Kuang, L. Y., Liu, S. Y., Ding, Y. K., X-ray Optics Group, Institute for Quantum Optics and Electronics, Friedrich-Schiller-University, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena, and Research Center of Laser Fusion, National Key Laboratory of Laser Fusion, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900. Single order x-ray diffraction with binary sinusoidal transmission grating. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2435618.
Cao, L. F., Foerster, E., Fuhrmann, A., Wang, C. K., Kuang, L. Y., Liu, S. Y., Ding, Y. K., X-ray Optics Group, Institute for Quantum Optics and Electronics, Friedrich-Schiller-University, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena, & Research Center of Laser Fusion, National Key Laboratory of Laser Fusion, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900. Single order x-ray diffraction with binary sinusoidal transmission grating. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2435618.
Cao, L. F., Foerster, E., Fuhrmann, A., Wang, C. K., Kuang, L. Y., Liu, S. Y., Ding, Y. K., X-ray Optics Group, Institute for Quantum Optics and Electronics, Friedrich-Schiller-University, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena, and Research Center of Laser Fusion, National Key Laboratory of Laser Fusion, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900. Mon . "Single order x-ray diffraction with binary sinusoidal transmission grating". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2435618.
@article{osti_20971804,
title = {Single order x-ray diffraction with binary sinusoidal transmission grating},
author = {Cao, L. F. and Foerster, E. and Fuhrmann, A. and Wang, C. K. and Kuang, L. Y. and Liu, S. Y. and Ding, Y. K. and X-ray Optics Group, Institute for Quantum Optics and Electronics, Friedrich-Schiller-University, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena and Research Center of Laser Fusion, National Key Laboratory of Laser Fusion, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900},
abstractNote = {All existing x-ray dispersive devices including crystals, multilayers and diffraction gratings generate spectra in multiple orders. In this letter the authors describe how an axis symmetrically distributed sinusoidal-shaped aperture with binary transmittance values can be used to disperse x rays and with a superior diffraction pattern where, along its symmetry axis, all higher-order diffractions can be effectively suppressed. Hence this sophisticated dispersive element generates pure soft x-ray spectra in the first diffraction order, free from interference from higher diffraction orders.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2435618},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 5,
volume = 90,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 29 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 29 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • A gold transmission grating is used routinely to disperse the x-ray spectrum at the Z soft x-ray facility to measure the spectrum and temporal history of the absolute soft x-ray power emitted from z-pinch and hohlraum radiation sources. A quantum-dot-array diffraction grating (QDADG) of 250 lines/mm for soft x-ray is designed and fabricated for the first time according to the principle of binary sinusoidal transmission grating. The diffraction efficiencies of the grating are measured in the 150-300 eV photon energy range on the Beamline 3W1B of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. This article describes the basic concept and calibration techniques andmore » presents calibration results. It is shown that the 250 lines/mm QDADG can be used to disperse light without higher-order diffractions in soft x-ray range, and the diffraction efficiencies of this grating are nearly constant (about 25%), which is beneficial in the spectrum analysis.« less
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  • We derive the thickness profiles of metallic transmission-grating bars that maximize either the power throughput into the mth diffracted order or the ratio of the mth-order diffracted power to the total output (in the soft-x-ray range). The derivation is performed for both general and symmetric bar shapes and for the two physically important cases of continuous gratings and gratings with integral bars. The analysis is valid for all cases in which the optical constants are general functions of position in a direction perpendicular both to the light and to the grating bars. Examples of some optimum profiles for gold inmore » the soft-x-ray range are computed on the basis of the presented analysis and are tabulated for convenient reference.« less
  • A preliminary experiment of X-ray phase microtomography by a single phase grating is reported. A phase grating was placed behind an object and illuminated by spatially coherent X-rays. At a specific distance from the grating, a periodic intensity pattern caused by the fractional Talbot effect was recorded with a high spatial-resolution image detector. A differential phase map related to the object was retrieved from the deformation in the periodic intensity pattern on the basis of the fringe scanning method. Phase tomograms of a piece of polymer blend were reconstructed and a phase-separation structure in the blend was successfully resolved.
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop a single-shot version of the grating-based phase contrast x-ray imaging method and demonstrate its capability of in vivo animal imaging. Here, the authors describe the principle and experimental results. They show the source of artifacts in the phase contrast signal and optimal designs that minimize them. They also discuss its current limitations and ways to overcome them. Methods: A single lead grid was inserted midway between an x-ray tube and an x-ray camera in the planar radiography setting. The grid acted as a transmission grating and cast periodic dark fringes onmore » the camera. The camera had sufficient spatial resolution to resolve the fringes. Refraction and diffraction in the imaged object manifested as position shifts and amplitude attenuation of the fringes, respectively. In order to quantify these changes precisely without imposing a fixed geometric relationship between the camera pixel array and the fringes, a spatial harmonic method in the Fourier domain was developed. The level of the differential phase (refraction) contrast as a function of hardware specifications and device geometry was derived and used to guide the optimal placement of the grid and object. Both ex vivo and in vivo images of rodent extremities were collected to demonstrate the capability of the method. The exposure time using a 50 W tube was 28 s. Results: Differential phase contrast images of glass beads acquired at various grid and object positions confirmed theoretical predictions of how phase contrast and extraneous artifacts vary with the device geometry. In anesthetized rats, a single exposure yielded artifact-free images of absorption, differential phase contrast, and diffraction. Differential phase contrast was strongest at bone-soft tissue interfaces, while diffraction was strongest in bone. Conclusions: The spatial harmonic method allowed us to obtain absorption, differential phase contrast, and diffraction images, all from a single raw image and is feasible in live animals. Because the sensitivity of the method scales with the density of the gratings, custom microfabricated gratings should be superior to off-the-shelf lead grids.« less