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Title: Nd{sup 3+} ion shift under domain inversion by electron beam writing in LiNbO{sub 3}

Abstract

Ferroelectric domain inversion has been obtained in Nd{sup 3+} doped lithium niobate by means of direct electron beam writing. The local effects of the polarization inversion on the optical transitions of Nd{sup 3+} ions have been studied by low temperature high resolution site selective spectroscopy. Inverted regions present different axial crystal field acting over Nd{sup 3+} ions compared with noninverted (original) regions. The results can be interpreted in terms of slight shifts of Nd{sup 3+} ions along the ferroelectric c axis within the Li{sup +} octahedrons, as a result of the lattice rearrangement after the domain inversion processes.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [2]
  1. Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049-Madrid (Spain)
  2. (Spain)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20960193
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 90; Journal Issue: 14; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2719036; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; CRYSTAL FIELD; DOPED MATERIALS; ELECTRON BEAMS; FERROELECTRIC MATERIALS; INFRARED SPECTRA; LITHIUM COMPOUNDS; LITHIUM IONS; NEODYMIUM IONS; NIOBATES; POLARIZATION; SPECTROSCOPY

Citation Formats

Molina, P., Sarkar, D., Ramirez, M. O., Garcia Sole, J., Bausa, L. E., Garcia, B. J., Munoz Santiuste, J. E., Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049-Madrid, and Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Leganes, 28911 Madrid. Nd{sup 3+} ion shift under domain inversion by electron beam writing in LiNbO{sub 3}. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2719036.
Molina, P., Sarkar, D., Ramirez, M. O., Garcia Sole, J., Bausa, L. E., Garcia, B. J., Munoz Santiuste, J. E., Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049-Madrid, & Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Leganes, 28911 Madrid. Nd{sup 3+} ion shift under domain inversion by electron beam writing in LiNbO{sub 3}. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2719036.
Molina, P., Sarkar, D., Ramirez, M. O., Garcia Sole, J., Bausa, L. E., Garcia, B. J., Munoz Santiuste, J. E., Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049-Madrid, and Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Leganes, 28911 Madrid. Mon . "Nd{sup 3+} ion shift under domain inversion by electron beam writing in LiNbO{sub 3}". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2719036.
@article{osti_20960193,
title = {Nd{sup 3+} ion shift under domain inversion by electron beam writing in LiNbO{sub 3}},
author = {Molina, P. and Sarkar, D. and Ramirez, M. O. and Garcia Sole, J. and Bausa, L. E. and Garcia, B. J. and Munoz Santiuste, J. E. and Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049-Madrid and Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Leganes, 28911 Madrid},
abstractNote = {Ferroelectric domain inversion has been obtained in Nd{sup 3+} doped lithium niobate by means of direct electron beam writing. The local effects of the polarization inversion on the optical transitions of Nd{sup 3+} ions have been studied by low temperature high resolution site selective spectroscopy. Inverted regions present different axial crystal field acting over Nd{sup 3+} ions compared with noninverted (original) regions. The results can be interpreted in terms of slight shifts of Nd{sup 3+} ions along the ferroelectric c axis within the Li{sup +} octahedrons, as a result of the lattice rearrangement after the domain inversion processes.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2719036},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 14,
volume = 90,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Apr 02 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Mon Apr 02 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • Different values of the electronic charge provided by a direct electron beam writing system have been used to produce polarization inverted domain regions in the micrometer range on Nd{sup 3+} optically activated LiNbO{sub 3}. The effect of the electronic charge on the Nd{sup 3+} center structure has been studied by means of low-temperature luminescence from Nd{sup 3+} ions. The axial crystal field acting on the Nd{sup 3+} centers has been analyzed through the {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} energy-level splitting of the Nd{sup 3+} ions. From there we have determined the position of Nd{sup 3+} ions into the Li{sup +} octahedra formore » the different unequivalent centers in domains reversed with different electronic doses. The results show that the axial crystal field acting on the unequivalent Nd{sup 3+} centers can be selectively modified by means of the different doses applied to produce the inversion of the polarization. Moreover, a control of the discrete shifts suffered by the Nd{sup 3+} ions into the Li{sup +} octahedra after the inversion process can be carried out in the range 0-0.02 A by selecting the type of Nd center to be shifted by means of the different electronic charge. The behavior of each Nd{sup 3+} center after the polarization inversion under different doses can be discriminated and the different nature, as well as the polar character of the Nd{sup 3+} centers, is clearly manifested.« less
  • We report on studies on writing of micro- and nanodomains and specified domain patterns by AFM-tip voltages U{sub DC} in thin (0.5 μm thick) ion-sliced LiNbO{sub 3} films embedded to SiO{sub 2}/LiNbO{sub 3} substrates. A peculiar feature is an overlapping of domains as the distance between them decreases. Piezoelectric hysteresis loops were measured in a wide range of U{sub DC} pulse durations. Domain dynamics and characteristics of hysteresis loops reveal marked distinctions from those observed so far in LiNbO{sub 3} films and bulk crystals.
  • Two procedures for facilitation of line tracing and deciphering of complicated spectra of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) were developed: a correction of microwave frequencies for every orientation of external magnetic field on the base of known values of g-tensor components for a reference paramagnetic center and followed rectification of measured angular dependences using plots of effective deviation of g{sup 2}-factors of observed lines from effective g{sup 2}-factors of the reference center versus angles or squared cosines of angles describing magnetic field orientations. Their application to EPR spectra of nearly stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals doped with neodymium allowed identifying two axialmore » and six different low-symmetry Nd{sup 3+} centers, to determine all components of their g-tensors, and to propose common divacancy models for a whole family of Nd{sup 3+} centers.« less
  • A bulk of LiNbO{sub 3} was periodically poled in two dimensions to achieve noncollinear second-harmonic generation. The sample was fabricated using an electron-beam indirect exposure. This method used a dielectric buffer layer deposited on LiNbO{sub 3} Z{sup -}polar face to trap the incident electrons. These localized electrons formed a charge droplet which generated a strong electric field and triggered the domain inversion process in the LiNbO{sub 3}. Tailored two-dimensional domain configurations enabled quasi-phase-matched frequency doubling of a Nd:YLF laser at 15 different input angles. The measured angular dependence was in agreement with calculations based on the nonlinear reciprocal lattice vectorsmore » of the poled structure.« less
  • We report on tubular cladding optical waveguides fabricated in Neodymium doped Wollastonite-Tricalcium Phosphate glass in the eutectic composition. The glass samples were prepared by melting the eutectic powder mixture in a Pt-Rh crucible at 1600 °C and pouring it in a preheated brass mould. Afterwards, the glass was annealed to relieve the inner stresses. Cladding waveguides were fabricated by focusing beneath the sample surface using a pulsed Ti:sapphire laser with a pulsewidth of 120 fs working at 1 kHz. The optical properties of these waveguides have been assessed in terms of near-field intensity distribution and transmitted power, and these results have been comparedmore » to previously reported waveguides with double-line configuration. Optical properties have also been studied as function of the temperature. Heat treatments up to 700 °C were carried out to diminish colour centre losses where waveguide's modes and transmitted power were compared in order to establish the annealing temperature at which the optimal optical properties were reached. Laser experiments are in progress to evaluate the ability of the waveguides for 1064 nm laser light generation under 800 nm optical pumping.« less