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Title: Ferrite with extraordinary electric and dielectric properties prepared from self-combustion technique

Abstract

Nickel-zinc ferrites (Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) with extraordinary electric and dielectric properties were prepared by self-combustion technique. The resistivity of ferrite in the ferric citrate system is on the order of 10{sup 10} {omega} cm, which is about four orders higher than that of ferrite in the ferric nitrate system as well as that of ferrite prepared by the conventional method. The dielectric loss of sample in the ferric citrate system is only 0.008. The amorphous phase and its encapsulation well around the grains have played most important roles in both high resistivity and low dielectric loss of ferrite in the ferric citrate system.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20960183
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 90; Journal Issue: 13; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2718482; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; AMORPHOUS STATE; CERAMICS; CITRATES; COMBUSTION; DIELECTRIC MATERIALS; DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES; ELECTRIC CONDUCTIVITY; ENCAPSULATION; FERRITES; NANOSTRUCTURES; NICKEL COMPOUNDS; NITRATES; PARTICLES; X-RAY DIFFRACTION; ZINC COMPOUNDS

Citation Formats

Chen Qian, Du Piyi, Huang Wenyan, Jin Lu, Weng Wenjian, and Han Gaorong. Ferrite with extraordinary electric and dielectric properties prepared from self-combustion technique. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2718482.
Chen Qian, Du Piyi, Huang Wenyan, Jin Lu, Weng Wenjian, & Han Gaorong. Ferrite with extraordinary electric and dielectric properties prepared from self-combustion technique. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2718482.
Chen Qian, Du Piyi, Huang Wenyan, Jin Lu, Weng Wenjian, and Han Gaorong. Mon . "Ferrite with extraordinary electric and dielectric properties prepared from self-combustion technique". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2718482.
@article{osti_20960183,
title = {Ferrite with extraordinary electric and dielectric properties prepared from self-combustion technique},
author = {Chen Qian and Du Piyi and Huang Wenyan and Jin Lu and Weng Wenjian and Han Gaorong},
abstractNote = {Nickel-zinc ferrites (Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) with extraordinary electric and dielectric properties were prepared by self-combustion technique. The resistivity of ferrite in the ferric citrate system is on the order of 10{sup 10} {omega} cm, which is about four orders higher than that of ferrite in the ferric nitrate system as well as that of ferrite prepared by the conventional method. The dielectric loss of sample in the ferric citrate system is only 0.008. The amorphous phase and its encapsulation well around the grains have played most important roles in both high resistivity and low dielectric loss of ferrite in the ferric citrate system.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2718482},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 13,
volume = 90,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Mar 26 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Mon Mar 26 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • Graphical abstract: Variation of AC conductivity (σ{sub AC}) as a function of natural log of angular frequency (lnω) for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2-x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 4} nanoferrites at room temperature. - Highlights: • Cr doped mixed Ni-Zn ferrites were successfully synthesized by a newly developed WOWS sol gel technique. • The specific surface area and specific surface area to volume ratio increased with decrease in particle size. • The resonance peaks appeared in dielectric loss graphs, shifting towards low frequency with the increase in Cr concentration. • The prepared samples have the lowest values of the dielectric constant. • The dielectricmore » constant were observed to be inversely proportional to square root of the AC resistivity. - Abstract: Cr{sup +3} doped Ni-Zn nanoferrite samples with composition Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2-x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 4}(x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) were synthesized With Out Water and Surfactant (WOWS) sol-gel technique. The structural, morphological and dielectric properties of the samples were investigated. The lattice constant, crystallite size, theoretical density and porosity of each sample were obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD) data. The specific surface area and specific surface area to volume ratio increased with the decrease in the size of Cr{sup +3} doped Ni-Zn ferrite nanoparticles, as the concentration of Cr{sup +3} increased. The SEM analysis revealed that the particles were of nano size and of spherical shape. The dielectric parameters such as dielectric constant (ε′) and dielectric loss (tanδ) of all the samples as a function of frequency at room temperature were measured. The AC conductivity (σ{sub AC}) was determined from the dielectric parameters, which showed increasing trend with the rise in frequency.« less
  • Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sintered NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was prepared by a soft mechanochemical route from mixture powders. • XRD and Raman measurements indicate that the prepared samples have spinel structure. • The activation energy ΔE are 0.653 and 0.452 eV for NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples. • Ferrite from Ni(OH){sub 2}/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} has lower DC conductivity than from Ni(OH){sub 2}/Fe(OH){sub 3} powders. • The values of dielectric constant of samples NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} are 70 and 200, respectively. - Abstract: Nickel ferrite, NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was prepared by a soft mechanochemical route from a mixture of (1) Ni(OH){submore » 2} and α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and (2) Ni(OH){sub 2} and Fe(OH){sub 3} powders in a planetary ball mill for 25 h. The powder samples were sintered at 1100 °C for 2 h and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Impedance spectroscopy techniques were used to study the effect of grain and grain boundary on the electrical properties of the prepared samples. A difference in dielectric constant (ε) and dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples obtained by the same methods but starting from different initial components was observed.« less
  • Lead borate and lead silicate were added to lower the sintering temperature of a Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite prepared from the blend of two types of powders and to homogenize the grain size. 5PbO.SiO{sub 2} and 5PbO.B{sub 2}O{sub 3} flux systems were added to lower the sintering temperature and diminish the magnetic loss at high frequencies. The ferrites were studied by bulk density, scanning electron microscopy and impedance analysis. It was found that the addition of PbO markedly accelerated the grain growth, while SiO{sub 2} and B{sub 2}O{sub 3} were found to be effective to obstruct the movementmore » of grain boundaries and to minimize the grain size. Doping with PbO in the mixed powders appropriately increased the densification and initial permeability. The ferrite doped with 1% of 5PbO.SiO{sub 2} possessed the lowest loss tangent (tg{delta}) in the range of 5 M-40 MHz and the highest threshold frequency.« less
  • Microstructural, magnetothermal and dielectric properties of YCrO{sub 3} powders prepared by combustion and solid state methods have been studied by a combination of XRD, specific heat, magnetization and permittivity measurements. The TEM and XRD characterization confirm that the combustion powders are amorphous plate-like agglomerates of nano-sized crystalline particles. A more uniform grain size along with an increase of the relative density is observed by SEM in the sintered samples prepared by combustion route with respect to those produced by solid state reaction. Similar to the material obtained through solid state synthesis, the material prepared by the combustion method also showsmore » spin canted antiferromagnetic ordering of Cr{sup +3} (S=3/2) at {approx}140 K, which is shown by magnetization as well as {lambda}-type anomaly in the total specific heat. Furthermore, the magnetic contribution to the total specific heat reveals spin fluctuations above T{sub N} and a spin reorientation transition at about 60 K. Both YCrO{sub 3} compounds show a diffuse phase transition at about 450 K, typical of a relaxor ferroelectric, which is characterized by a broad peak in the real part of the dielectric permittivity as a function of temperature, with the peak decreasing in magnitude and shifting to higher temperature as the frequency increases. The relaxor dipoles are due to the local non-centrosymmetric structure. Furthermore, the high loss tangent in a broad range of temperature as well as conductivity analysis indicates a hopping mechanism for the electronic conductivity as we believe it is a consequence of the outer d{sup 3}-shell, which have detrimental effects on the polarization and the pooling process in the YCrO{sub 3} bulk material. The more uniform particle size and higher density material synthesized through the combustion process leads to an improvement in the dielectric Properties. - Graphical abstract: Combustion method: An alternative route for synthesized a new family of multiferroics. Amorphous agglomerates of nano-sized particles of YCrO{sub 3} compounds.« less
  • Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} prepared by self combustion with uniform/nonuniform heating. ► Characterized using TEM, XRD, in-field Mössbauer and DC magnetometry. ► Leads to bimodal (S1) and very narrow size distribution (S2) type nano samples. ► S1 has magnetic properties of bulk Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. ► Although very even sized, S2 large magnetic anisotropy distribution. -- Abstract: Nano powders of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} have been synthesized by the self-combustion method at a relatively low temperature of 473 K under conditions of non-uniform and uniform heating. Rietveld fitting of X-raymore » diffractograms confirm the formation of the pure spinel phase in both samples. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that the sample prepared under non-uniform heating has a bimodal particle size distribution (average values 16 nm and 6 nm) while the one prepared under uniform heating has a very narrow particle size distribution (average size 4 nm). Low temperature, in-field Mössbauer spectroscopic studies clearly show surface spin contributions. The hyperfine fields and Curie temperature of the non-uniformly heated sample are in good agreement with those reported for the corresponding bulk samples. Despite having a very narrow particle size distribution, the uniformly heated sample has a large anisotropy distribution which is evident in the broad transition visible in the temperature dependent magnetization curve. It is also corroborated by the fact that the experimental magnetization curve at room temperature requires two Langevin functions for satisfactory reproduction.« less