skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Epsilon-near-zero metamaterials and electromagnetic sources: Tailoring the radiation phase pattern

Abstract

In this work, we investigate the response of epsilon-near-zero metamaterials and plasmonic materials to electromagnetic source excitation. The use of these media for tailoring the phase of radiation pattern of arbitrary sources is proposed and analyzed numerically and analytically for some canonical geometries. In particular, the possibility of employing planar layers, cylindrical shells, or other more complex shapes made of such materials in order to isolate two regions of space and to tailor the phase pattern in one region, fairly independent of the excitation shape present in the other region, is demonstrated with theoretical arguments and some numerical examples. Physical insights into the phenomenon are also presented and discussed together with potential applications of the phenomenon.

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)
  2. (Portugal)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20957813
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics; Journal Volume: 75; Journal Issue: 15; Other Information: DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.75.155410; (c) 2007 The American Physical Society; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; CYLINDRICAL CONFIGURATION; ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS; EXCITATION; GEOMETRY; LAYERS; LENSES; PLASMONS; SHAPE

Citation Formats

Alu, Andrea, Salandrino, Alessandro, Engheta, Nader, Silveirinha, Mario G., and Instituto de Telecomunicacoes, Department of Electrical Engineering, Universidade de Coimbra, 3030-290 Coimbra. Epsilon-near-zero metamaterials and electromagnetic sources: Tailoring the radiation phase pattern. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVB.75.155410.
Alu, Andrea, Salandrino, Alessandro, Engheta, Nader, Silveirinha, Mario G., & Instituto de Telecomunicacoes, Department of Electrical Engineering, Universidade de Coimbra, 3030-290 Coimbra. Epsilon-near-zero metamaterials and electromagnetic sources: Tailoring the radiation phase pattern. United States. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVB.75.155410.
Alu, Andrea, Salandrino, Alessandro, Engheta, Nader, Silveirinha, Mario G., and Instituto de Telecomunicacoes, Department of Electrical Engineering, Universidade de Coimbra, 3030-290 Coimbra. Sun . "Epsilon-near-zero metamaterials and electromagnetic sources: Tailoring the radiation phase pattern". United States. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVB.75.155410.
@article{osti_20957813,
title = {Epsilon-near-zero metamaterials and electromagnetic sources: Tailoring the radiation phase pattern},
author = {Alu, Andrea and Salandrino, Alessandro and Engheta, Nader and Silveirinha, Mario G. and Instituto de Telecomunicacoes, Department of Electrical Engineering, Universidade de Coimbra, 3030-290 Coimbra},
abstractNote = {In this work, we investigate the response of epsilon-near-zero metamaterials and plasmonic materials to electromagnetic source excitation. The use of these media for tailoring the phase of radiation pattern of arbitrary sources is proposed and analyzed numerically and analytically for some canonical geometries. In particular, the possibility of employing planar layers, cylindrical shells, or other more complex shapes made of such materials in order to isolate two regions of space and to tailor the phase pattern in one region, fairly independent of the excitation shape present in the other region, is demonstrated with theoretical arguments and some numerical examples. Physical insights into the phenomenon are also presented and discussed together with potential applications of the phenomenon.},
doi = {10.1103/PHYSREVB.75.155410},
journal = {Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics},
number = 15,
volume = 75,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Sun Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • In this work, we study the electrodynamics of metamaterials that consist of resonant non-magnetic inclusions embedded in an epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) host medium. It is shown that the inclusions can be designed in such a way that both the effective permittivity and permeability of the composite structure are simultaneously zero. Two different metamaterial configurations are studied and analyzed in detail. For a particular class of problems, it is analytically proven that such matched zero-index metamaterials may help improving the transmission through a waveguide bend, and that the scattering parameters may be completely independent of the specific arrangement of the inclusions andmore » of the granularity of the crystal. The proposed concepts are numerically demonstrated at microwaves with a metamaterial realistic realization based on an artificial plasma.« less
  • Epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) modes provide a new path for tailoring light–matter interactions at the nanoscale. In this paper, we analyze a strongly coupled system at near-infrared frequencies comprising plasmonic metamaterial resonators and ENZ modes supported by degenerately doped semiconductor nanolayers. In strongly coupled systems that combine optical cavities and intersubband transitions, the polariton splitting (i.e., the ratio of Rabi frequency to bare cavity frequency) scales with the square root of the wavelength, thus favoring the long-wavelength regime. In contrast, we observe that the polariton splitting in ENZ/metamaterial resonator systems increases linearly with the thickness of the nanolayer supporting the ENZ modes.more » In this work, we employ an indium-tin-oxide nanolayer and observe a large experimental polariton splitting of approximately 30% in the near-infrared. As a result, this approach opens up many promising applications, including nonlinear optical components and tunable optical filters based on controlling the polariton splitting by adjusting the frequency of the ENZ mode.« less
  • In this work, we investigate the detailed theory of the supercoupling, anomalous tunneling effect, and field confinement originally identified by Silveirinha and Engheta [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 157403 (2006)], where we demonstrated the possibility of using materials with permittivity {epsilon} near zero to drastically improve the transmission of electromagnetic energy through a narrow irregular channel with very subwavelength transverse cross section. Here, we present additional physical insights, describe applications of the tunneling effect in relevant waveguide scenarios (e.g., the 'perfect' or 'super' waveguide coupling), and study the effect of metal losses in the metallic walls and the possibility of usingmore » near-zero {epsilon} materials to confine energy in a subwavelength cavity with gigantic field enhancement. In addition, we systematically study the propagation of electromagnetic waves through narrow channels filled with anisotropic near-zero {epsilon} materials. It is demonstrated that these materials may have interesting potentials, and that for some particular geometries, the reflectivity of the channel is independent of the specific dimensions or parameters of near-zero {epsilon} transition. We also describe several realistic metamaterial implementations of the studied problems, based on standard metallic waveguides, microstrip line configurations, and wire media.« less
  • We theoretically propose and numerically investigate an active plasmonic device made up of a nonlinear {epsilon}-near-zero metamaterial slab of thickness smaller than 100 nm lying on a linear {epsilon}-near-zero metamaterial substrate. We predict that in free-space coupling configuration the system operating at low intensity displays plasmon mediated hysteresis behavior. The phase difference between the reflected and the incident optical waves turns out to be multivalued and dependent on the history of the excitation process. Such an hysteresis behavior allows the proposed system to be regarded as a memory device whose state is accessible by measuring either the mentioned phase differencemore » or the power, which is multivalued as well, carried by the nonlinear plasmon wave. Since multiple plasmon powers comprise both positive and negative values, the device also operates as a switch of the plasmon power direction at each jump along an hysteresis loop.« less
  • We investigate analytically transverse-magnetic spatial bright solitons, as exact solutions of Maxwell's equations, propagating through nonlinear metamaterials whose linear dielectric permittivity is very close to zero and whose effective nonlinear Kerr parameters can be tailored to achieve values not available in standard materials. Exploiting the fact that, in the medium considered, linear and nonlinear polarization can be comparable at feasible and realistic optical intensities, we identify two self-trapping mechanisms able to support two-peaked and flat-top solitons, respectively. Specifically, these two mechanisms are based on the occurrence of critical points at which the effective nonlinear permittivity vanishes, the two mechanisms differingmore » in the way the compensation between linear and nonlinear polarization is achieved through the nonstandard values of the nonlinear parameters.« less