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Title: Low-energy linear oxygen plasma source

Abstract

A new version of a constricted plasma source is described, characterized by all metal-ceramic construction, a linear slit exit of 180 mm length, and cw operation (typically 50 kHz) at an average power of 1.5 kW. The plasma source is here operated with oxygen gas, producing streaming plasma that contains mainly positive molecular and atomic ions, and to a much lesser degree, negative ions. The maximum total ion current obtained was about 0.5 A. The fraction of atomic ions reached more than 10% of all ions when the flow rate was less then 10 SCCM O{sub 2}, corresponding to a chamber pressure of about 0.5 Pa for the selected pumping speed. The energy distribution functions of the different ion species were measured with a combined mass spectrometer and energy analyzer. The time-averaged distribution functions were broad and ranged from about 30 to 90 eV at 200 kHz and higher frequencies, while they were only several eV broad at 50 kHz and lower frequencies, with the maximum located at about 40 eV for the grounded anode case. This maximum was shifted down to about 7 eV when the anode was floating, indicating the important role of the plasma potential for themore » ion energy for a given substrate potential. The source could be scaled to greater length and may be useful for functionalization of surfaces and plasma-assisted deposition of compound films.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
  2. (Russian Federation)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20953412
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Review of Scientific Instruments; Journal Volume: 78; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2723753; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; ANIONS; ANODES; ATOMIC IONS; CERAMICS; CURRENTS; DEPOSITION; DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS; ENERGY SPECTRA; FILMS; FLOW RATE; KHZ RANGE 100-1000; LENGTH; MASS SPECTROMETERS; METALS; OXYGEN; PLASMA; PLASMA POTENTIAL

Citation Formats

Anders, Andre, Yushkov, George Yu., and High Current Electronics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 4 Academichesky Avenue, Tomsk 634055. Low-energy linear oxygen plasma source. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2723753.
Anders, Andre, Yushkov, George Yu., & High Current Electronics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 4 Academichesky Avenue, Tomsk 634055. Low-energy linear oxygen plasma source. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2723753.
Anders, Andre, Yushkov, George Yu., and High Current Electronics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 4 Academichesky Avenue, Tomsk 634055. Sun . "Low-energy linear oxygen plasma source". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2723753.
@article{osti_20953412,
title = {Low-energy linear oxygen plasma source},
author = {Anders, Andre and Yushkov, George Yu. and High Current Electronics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 4 Academichesky Avenue, Tomsk 634055},
abstractNote = {A new version of a constricted plasma source is described, characterized by all metal-ceramic construction, a linear slit exit of 180 mm length, and cw operation (typically 50 kHz) at an average power of 1.5 kW. The plasma source is here operated with oxygen gas, producing streaming plasma that contains mainly positive molecular and atomic ions, and to a much lesser degree, negative ions. The maximum total ion current obtained was about 0.5 A. The fraction of atomic ions reached more than 10% of all ions when the flow rate was less then 10 SCCM O{sub 2}, corresponding to a chamber pressure of about 0.5 Pa for the selected pumping speed. The energy distribution functions of the different ion species were measured with a combined mass spectrometer and energy analyzer. The time-averaged distribution functions were broad and ranged from about 30 to 90 eV at 200 kHz and higher frequencies, while they were only several eV broad at 50 kHz and lower frequencies, with the maximum located at about 40 eV for the grounded anode case. This maximum was shifted down to about 7 eV when the anode was floating, indicating the important role of the plasma potential for the ion energy for a given substrate potential. The source could be scaled to greater length and may be useful for functionalization of surfaces and plasma-assisted deposition of compound films.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2723753},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 4,
volume = 78,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Sun Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • A new version of a Constricted Plasma Source is described,characterized by all metal-ceramic construction, a linear slit exit of180 mm length, and cw-operation (typically 50 kHz) at an average power of1.5 kW. The plasma source is here operated with oxygen gas, producingstreaming plasma that contains mainly positive molecular and atomic ions,and to a much lesser degree, negative ions. The maximum total ion currentobtained was about 0.5 A. The fraction of atomic ions reached more than10 percent of all ions when the flow rate was less then 10 sccm O2,corresponding to a chamber pressure of about 0.5 Pa for the selectedpumpingmore » speed. The energy distribution functions of the different ionspecies were measured with a combinedmass spectrometer and energyanalyzer. The time-averaged distribution functions were broad and rangedfrom about 30eV to 90 eV at 200 kHz and higher frequencies, while theywere only several eV broad at 50 kHz and lower frequencies, with themaximum located at about 40 eV for the grounded anode case. This maximumwas shifted down to about 7 eV when the anode was floating, indicatingthe important role of the plasma potential for the ion energy for a givensubstrate potential. The source could be scaled to greater length and maybe useful for functionalization of surfaces and plasma-assisteddeposition of compound films.« less
  • Cross sections for O/sup q/+-He single electron capture have been measured for 5< or =q< or =8 within the energy range 15 to 100 keV per amu. High energy positive ions were injected into an EN tandem Van de Graaff operated at a negative voltage, producing even higher energy for foil stripping to high charge states, followed by ion deceleration to reduce the ion energy by as much as a factor of 50.
  • To meet the requirements of developing separated function radio frequency quadruple (rfq) and upgrading the 1 MeV integral split ring rfq accelerator, an electron cyclotron resonance O{sup +} ion source and low energy beam transport (LEBT) system have been developed. Using two Einzel lenses to focus the beam, more than 6 mA O{sup +} peak beam current with energy of 22 keV can be easily obtained at the end of LEBT when the duty faction is at 1/6. The normalized root-mean-square emittance of 90% of the beam is about 0.12{pi} mm mrad. By changing the focusing power of lenses, themore » beam waist can be shifted from 80 mm before the beam diaphragm 2 to 80 mm after it. The experimental results will be presented in this article.« less
  • We have developed a novel and economical neutral-beam injection system by employing a washer-gun plasma source. It provides a low-cost and maintenance-free ion beam, thus eliminating the need for the filaments and water-cooling systems employed conventionally. In our primary experiments, the washer gun produced a source plasma with an electron temperature of approximately 5 eV and an electron density of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} m{sup -3}, i.e., conditions suitable for ion-beam extraction. The dependence of the extracted beam current on the acceleration voltage is consistent with space-charge current limitation, because the observed current density is almost proportional to the 3/2more » power of the acceleration voltage below approximately 8 kV. By optimizing plasma formation, we successfully achieved beam extraction of up to 40 A at 15 kV and a pulse length in excess of 0.25 ms. Its low-voltage and high-current pulsed-beam properties enable us to apply this high-power neutral beam injection into a high-beta compact torus plasma characterized by a low magnetic field.« less
  • A plasma sputter-type negative ion source is utilized to produce and detect negative Zr ions with energies between 150 and 450 eV via a retarding potential-type electrostatic energy analyzer. Traditional and modified semi-cylindrical Faraday cups (FC) inside the analyzer are employed to sample negative Zr ions and measure corresponding ion currents. The traditional FC registered indistinct ion current readings which are attributed to backscattering of ions and secondary electron emissions. The modified Faraday cup with biased repeller guard ring, cut out these signal distortions leaving only ringings as issues which are theoretically compensated by fitting a sigmoidal function into themore » data. The mean energy and energy spread are calculated using the ion current versus retarding potential data while the beam width values are determined from the data of the transverse measurement of ion current. The most energetic negative Zr ions yield tighter energy spread at 4.11 eV compared to the least energetic negative Zr ions at 4.79 eV. The smallest calculated beam width is 1.04 cm for the negative Zr ions with the highest mean energy indicating a more focused beam in contrast to the less energetic negative Zr ions due to space charge forces.« less