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Title: Laboratory arrangement for soft x-ray zone plate efficiency measurements

Abstract

We demonstrate a laboratory-scale arrangement for rapid and accurate measurements of the absolute and local efficiency of soft x-ray micro zone plates in the water window. This in-house instrument is based on a single-line {lambda}=2.88 nm liquid-jet laser-plasma source. Measurements are performed by a simultaneous comparison of first diffraction-order photon flux with the flux in a calibrated reference signal. This arrangement eliminates existing source emission fluctuations. The performance of the method is demonstrated by the result from measurements of two {approx}55 {mu}m diameter nickel micro zone plates, showing a groove efficiency of 12.9%{+-}1.1% and 11.7%{+-}1.0%. Furthermore, we show that spatially resolved efficiency mapping is an effective tool for a detailed characterization of local zone plate properties. Thus, this laboratory-scale instrument allows rapid feedback to the fabrication process which is important for future improvements.

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Biomedical and X-Ray Physics, Department of Applied Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20953272
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Review of Scientific Instruments; Journal Volume: 78; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2472590; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; DIFFRACTION; EFFICIENCY; FABRICATION; FEEDBACK; FLUCTUATIONS; NICKEL; OPTICS; PHOTONS; PLASMA; PLATES; SIGNALS; SOFT X RADIATION; ZONES

Citation Formats

Bertilson, Michael C., Takman, Per A. C., Holmberg, Anders, Vogt, Ulrich, and Hertz, Hans M. Laboratory arrangement for soft x-ray zone plate efficiency measurements. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2472590.
Bertilson, Michael C., Takman, Per A. C., Holmberg, Anders, Vogt, Ulrich, & Hertz, Hans M. Laboratory arrangement for soft x-ray zone plate efficiency measurements. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2472590.
Bertilson, Michael C., Takman, Per A. C., Holmberg, Anders, Vogt, Ulrich, and Hertz, Hans M. Thu . "Laboratory arrangement for soft x-ray zone plate efficiency measurements". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2472590.
@article{osti_20953272,
title = {Laboratory arrangement for soft x-ray zone plate efficiency measurements},
author = {Bertilson, Michael C. and Takman, Per A. C. and Holmberg, Anders and Vogt, Ulrich and Hertz, Hans M.},
abstractNote = {We demonstrate a laboratory-scale arrangement for rapid and accurate measurements of the absolute and local efficiency of soft x-ray micro zone plates in the water window. This in-house instrument is based on a single-line {lambda}=2.88 nm liquid-jet laser-plasma source. Measurements are performed by a simultaneous comparison of first diffraction-order photon flux with the flux in a calibrated reference signal. This arrangement eliminates existing source emission fluctuations. The performance of the method is demonstrated by the result from measurements of two {approx}55 {mu}m diameter nickel micro zone plates, showing a groove efficiency of 12.9%{+-}1.1% and 11.7%{+-}1.0%. Furthermore, we show that spatially resolved efficiency mapping is an effective tool for a detailed characterization of local zone plate properties. Thus, this laboratory-scale instrument allows rapid feedback to the fabrication process which is important for future improvements.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2472590},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 2,
volume = 78,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Thu Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • A soft x-ray microscope has been developed at the beamline NE1B of the 6.5-GeV TRISTAN Accumulation Ring (AR). It makes use of undulator radiation as its source and a zone plate with the outermost zone width of 50 nm as its imaging element. It has two main features. First, the undulator radiation is monochromatized by a grazing incidence grating monochromator to match to the monochromaticity requirement of the zone plate. Second, a visible light prefocus unit consisting of two objectives has been designed and installed in the x-ray microscope. The x-ray optical system of the microscope can be adjusted easily,more » quickly, and precisely by using this unit. The microscope can resolve 55-nm lines and spaces in a zone plate test pattern.« less
  • A compact system for high-resolution spectroscopy and quantitative photon flux and brilliance measurements of pulsed soft x-ray sources is described. The calibrated system combines a novel elliptical off-axis reflection zone plate with charge-coupled device detection for simultaneous spectral and spatial measurements. Experiments on a water-window droplet-target laser-plasma source demonstrate {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}{ge}1000 spectral resolution and absolute flux and brilliance measurements. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
  • To extend soft x-ray microscopy to a resolution of order 10 nm or better, we developed a new nanofabrication process for Fresnel zone plate lenses. The new process, based on the double patterning technique, has enabled us to fabricate high quality gold zone plates with 12 nm outer zones. Testing of the zone plate with the full-field transmission x-ray microscope, XM-1, in Berkeley, showed that the lens clearly resolved 12 nm lines and spaces. This result represents a significant step towards 10 nm resolution and beyond.
  • Soft x-ray zone plate microscopy provides a unique combination of capabilities that complement those of electron and scanning probe microscopies. Tremendous efforts are taken worldwide to achieve sub-10 nm resolution, which will permit extension of x-ray microscopy to a broader range of nanosciences and nanotechnologies. In this paper, the overlay nanofabrication technique is described, which permits zone width of 15 nm and below to be fabricated. The fabrication results of 12 nm zone plates, and the stacking of identical zone patterns for higher aspect ratio, are discussed.
  • The Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) operates a transmission x-ray microscope (TXM) in the soft x-ray photon energy range with an energy resolution up to E/{Delta}E = 10{sup 4}. An approach to achieve ultrahigh spatial resolution with conventional, standard zone plate optics is to employ higher orders of diffraction of the zone plate objective. In this paper, we demonstrate that 11-nm lines and spaces of a multilayer test structure are clearly resolved by the x-ray microscope using the third order of diffraction of a zone plate objective with 20-nm outermost zone width. The disadvantage of high-order imaging is an about one ordermore » of magnitude lower diffraction efficiency of the used zone plates employed in the third order compared to the first order of diffraction. In addition, the measured background signal in the TXM images is no longer negligible. Therefore, we worked on the fabrication of zone plates with sub-20-nm outermost zone width to increase the spatial resolution in the first order of diffraction. A new high-resolution 100-keV e-beam lithography system from VISTEC, which was recently installed at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, makes these developments possible. Initial results on zone plates with an outermost zone width down to 15 nm exposed with the new e-beam system are presented. Furthermore, the contrast transfer function of the transmission x-ray microscope operating in partial coherence mode is measured by using the first and third diffraction order of the zone plate objective.« less