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Title: Reflection of attosecond x-ray free electron laser pulses

Abstract

In order to utilize hard x-ray free electron lasers (XFEL's) when they are extended to attosecond pulse lengths, it is necessary to choose optical elements with minimal response time. Specular grazing-incidence optics made of low-Z materials are popular candidates for reflectors since they are likely to withstand x-ray damage and provide sufficiently large reflectivities. Using linear-optics reflection theory, we calculated the transient reflectivity of a delta-function electric pulse from a homogenous semi-infinite medium as a function of angle of incidence for s- and p-polarized light. We specifically considered the pulse response of beryllium, diamond, silicon carbide, and silicon, all of which are of relevance to the XFEL's that are currently being built. We found that the media emit energy in a damped oscillatory way, and that the impulse-response times are shorter than 0.3 fs for normal incidence. For grazing incidence, the impulse-response time is substantially shorter, making grazing-incidence mirrors a good choice for deep subfemtosecond reflective optics.

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20953228
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Review of Scientific Instruments; Journal Volume: 78; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2428271; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; BERYLLIUM; DAMAGE; DIAMONDS; FREE ELECTRON LASERS; HARD X RADIATION; INCIDENCE ANGLE; LENGTH; MIRRORS; OPTICS; PULSES; REFLECTION; REFLECTIVITY; SILICON; SILICON CARBIDES; X-RAY LASERS

Citation Formats

Hau-Riege, Stefan P., and Chapman, Henry N. Reflection of attosecond x-ray free electron laser pulses. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2428271.
Hau-Riege, Stefan P., & Chapman, Henry N. Reflection of attosecond x-ray free electron laser pulses. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2428271.
Hau-Riege, Stefan P., and Chapman, Henry N. Mon . "Reflection of attosecond x-ray free electron laser pulses". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2428271.
@article{osti_20953228,
title = {Reflection of attosecond x-ray free electron laser pulses},
author = {Hau-Riege, Stefan P. and Chapman, Henry N.},
abstractNote = {In order to utilize hard x-ray free electron lasers (XFEL's) when they are extended to attosecond pulse lengths, it is necessary to choose optical elements with minimal response time. Specular grazing-incidence optics made of low-Z materials are popular candidates for reflectors since they are likely to withstand x-ray damage and provide sufficiently large reflectivities. Using linear-optics reflection theory, we calculated the transient reflectivity of a delta-function electric pulse from a homogenous semi-infinite medium as a function of angle of incidence for s- and p-polarized light. We specifically considered the pulse response of beryllium, diamond, silicon carbide, and silicon, all of which are of relevance to the XFEL's that are currently being built. We found that the media emit energy in a damped oscillatory way, and that the impulse-response times are shorter than 0.3 fs for normal incidence. For grazing incidence, the impulse-response time is substantially shorter, making grazing-incidence mirrors a good choice for deep subfemtosecond reflective optics.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2428271},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 1,
volume = 78,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • In order to utilize hard x-ray free electron lasers (XFEL's) when they are extended to attosecond pulse lengths, it is necessary to choose optical elements with minimal response time. Specular grazing incidence optics made of low-Z materials are popular candidates for reflectors since they are likely to withstand x-ray damage and provide sufficiently large reflectivities. Using linear-optics reflection theory, we calculated the transient reflectivity of a delta-function electric pulse from a homogeneous semi-infinite medium as a function of angle of incidence for s- and p-polarized light. We specifically considered the pulse response of Be, diamond, silicon carbide, and silicon, allmore » of which are of relevance to the XFEL's that are currently being built. We found that the media emit energy in a damped oscillatory way, and that the impulse-response times are shorter than 0.3 fs for normal incidence. For grazing incidence, the impulse-response time is substantially shorter, making grazing-incidence mirrors a good choice for deep-sub-femtosecond reflective optics.« less
  • We describe a technique for the generation of a solitary attosecond X-ray pulse in a free electron laser (FEL), via a process of self-amplified spontaneous emission. In this method, electrons experience an energy modulation upon interacting with laser pulses having a duration of a few cycles within single-period wiggler magnets. Two consecutive modulation sections, followed by compression in a dispersive section, are used to obtain a single, sub-femtosecond spike in the electron peak current. This region of the electron beam experiences an enhanced growth rate for FEL amplification. After propagation through a long undulator,this current spike emits a {approx}250 attosecondmore » X-ray pulse whose intensity dominates the X-ray emission from the rest of the electron bunch.« less
  • Here, we propose a novel scheme to generate attosecond soft x rays in a self-seeded free-electron laser (FEL) suitable for enabling attosecond spectroscopic investigations. A time-energy chirped electron bunch with additional sinusoidal energy modulation is adopted to produce a short seed pulse through a self-seeding monochromator. This short seed pulse, together with high electron current spikes and a cascaded delay setup, enables a high-efficiency FEL with a fresh bunch scheme. Simulations show that using the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) parameters, soft x-ray pulses with a FWHM of 260 attoseconds and a peak power of 0.5 TW can be obtained.more » This scheme also has the feature of providing a stable central wavelength determined by the self-seeding monochromator.« less
  • Here, we propose a novel scheme to generate attosecond soft x rays in a self-seeded free-electron laser (FEL) suitable for enabling attosecond spectroscopic investigations. A time-energy chirped electron bunch with additional sinusoidal energy modulation is adopted to produce a short seed pulse through a self-seeding monochromator. This short seed pulse, together with high electron current spikes and a cascaded delay setup, enables a high-efficiency FEL with a fresh bunch scheme. Simulations show that using the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) parameters, soft x-ray pulses with a FWHM of 260 attoseconds and a peak power of 0.5 TW can be obtained.more » This scheme also has the feature of providing a stable central wavelength determined by the self-seeding monochromator.« less
  • No abstract prepared.