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Title: Development of an ultrasmall C-band linear accelerator guide for a four-dimensional image-guided radiotherapy system with a gimbaled x-ray head

Abstract

We are developing a four-dimensional image-guided radiotherapy system with a gimbaled x-ray head. It is capable of pursuing irradiation and delivering irradiation precisely with the help of an agile moving x-ray head on the gimbals. Requirements for the accelerator guide were established, system design was developed, and detailed design was conducted. An accelerator guide was manufactured and basic beam performance and leakage radiation from the accelerator guide were evaluated at a low pulse repetition rate. The accelerator guide including the electron gun is 38 cm long and weighs about 10 kg. The length of the accelerating structure is 24.4 cm. The accelerating structure is a standing wave type and is composed of the axial-coupled injector section and the side-coupled acceleration cavity section. The injector section is composed of one prebuncher cavity, one buncher cavity, one side-coupled half cavity, and two axial coupling cavities. The acceleration cavity section is composed of eight side-coupled nose reentrant cavities and eight coupling cavities. The electron gun is a diode-type gun with a cerium hexaboride (CeB{sub 6}) direct heating cathode. The accelerator guide can be operated without any magnetic focusing device. Output beam current was 75 mA with a transmission efficiency of 58%, and themore » average energy was 5.24 MeV. Beam energy was distributed from 4.95 to 5.6 MeV. The beam profile, measured 88 mm from the beam output hole on the axis of the accelerator guide, was 0.7 mmx0.9 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) width. The beam loading line was 5.925 (MeV)-I{sub b} (mA)x0.00808 (MeV/mA), where I{sub b} is output beam current. The maximum radiation leakage of the accelerator guide at 100 cm from the axis of the accelerator guide was calculated as 0.33 cGy/min at the rated x-ray output of 500 cGy/min from the measured value. This leakage requires no radiation shielding for the accelerator guide itself per IEC 60601-2-1.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2]
  1. Medical Systems Administration Office, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 10, Oye-cho-Minato-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 455-8515 (Japan)
  2. (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20951310
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 34; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: DOI: 10.1118/1.2723878; (c) 2007 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; BEAM CURRENTS; ELECTRON GUNS; IMAGES; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; RADIOTHERAPY; X RADIATION

Citation Formats

Kamino, Yuichiro, Miura, Sadao, Kokubo, Masaki, Yamashita, Ichiro, Hirai, Etsuro, Hiraoka, Masahiro, Ishikawa, Junzo, Medical Systems Administration Office, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 2-16-5, Konan Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8215, Advanced Therapeutic Development Department, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, 2-2 Minatojima Minamimachi Chuo-ku, Kobe Hyogo 650-0047, Medical Systems Administration Office, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 2-16-5, Konan Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8215, Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, and Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto Daigaku Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510. Development of an ultrasmall C-band linear accelerator guide for a four-dimensional image-guided radiotherapy system with a gimbaled x-ray head. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1118/1.2723878.
Kamino, Yuichiro, Miura, Sadao, Kokubo, Masaki, Yamashita, Ichiro, Hirai, Etsuro, Hiraoka, Masahiro, Ishikawa, Junzo, Medical Systems Administration Office, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 2-16-5, Konan Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8215, Advanced Therapeutic Development Department, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, 2-2 Minatojima Minamimachi Chuo-ku, Kobe Hyogo 650-0047, Medical Systems Administration Office, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 2-16-5, Konan Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8215, Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, & Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto Daigaku Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510. Development of an ultrasmall C-band linear accelerator guide for a four-dimensional image-guided radiotherapy system with a gimbaled x-ray head. United States. doi:10.1118/1.2723878.
Kamino, Yuichiro, Miura, Sadao, Kokubo, Masaki, Yamashita, Ichiro, Hirai, Etsuro, Hiraoka, Masahiro, Ishikawa, Junzo, Medical Systems Administration Office, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 2-16-5, Konan Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8215, Advanced Therapeutic Development Department, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, 2-2 Minatojima Minamimachi Chuo-ku, Kobe Hyogo 650-0047, Medical Systems Administration Office, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 2-16-5, Konan Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8215, Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, and Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto Daigaku Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510. Tue . "Development of an ultrasmall C-band linear accelerator guide for a four-dimensional image-guided radiotherapy system with a gimbaled x-ray head". United States. doi:10.1118/1.2723878.
@article{osti_20951310,
title = {Development of an ultrasmall C-band linear accelerator guide for a four-dimensional image-guided radiotherapy system with a gimbaled x-ray head},
author = {Kamino, Yuichiro and Miura, Sadao and Kokubo, Masaki and Yamashita, Ichiro and Hirai, Etsuro and Hiraoka, Masahiro and Ishikawa, Junzo and Medical Systems Administration Office, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 2-16-5, Konan Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8215 and Advanced Therapeutic Development Department, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, 2-2 Minatojima Minamimachi Chuo-ku, Kobe Hyogo 650-0047 and Medical Systems Administration Office, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 2-16-5, Konan Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8215 and Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 and Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto Daigaku Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510},
abstractNote = {We are developing a four-dimensional image-guided radiotherapy system with a gimbaled x-ray head. It is capable of pursuing irradiation and delivering irradiation precisely with the help of an agile moving x-ray head on the gimbals. Requirements for the accelerator guide were established, system design was developed, and detailed design was conducted. An accelerator guide was manufactured and basic beam performance and leakage radiation from the accelerator guide were evaluated at a low pulse repetition rate. The accelerator guide including the electron gun is 38 cm long and weighs about 10 kg. The length of the accelerating structure is 24.4 cm. The accelerating structure is a standing wave type and is composed of the axial-coupled injector section and the side-coupled acceleration cavity section. The injector section is composed of one prebuncher cavity, one buncher cavity, one side-coupled half cavity, and two axial coupling cavities. The acceleration cavity section is composed of eight side-coupled nose reentrant cavities and eight coupling cavities. The electron gun is a diode-type gun with a cerium hexaboride (CeB{sub 6}) direct heating cathode. The accelerator guide can be operated without any magnetic focusing device. Output beam current was 75 mA with a transmission efficiency of 58%, and the average energy was 5.24 MeV. Beam energy was distributed from 4.95 to 5.6 MeV. The beam profile, measured 88 mm from the beam output hole on the axis of the accelerator guide, was 0.7 mmx0.9 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) width. The beam loading line was 5.925 (MeV)-I{sub b} (mA)x0.00808 (MeV/mA), where I{sub b} is output beam current. The maximum radiation leakage of the accelerator guide at 100 cm from the axis of the accelerator guide was calculated as 0.33 cGy/min at the rated x-ray output of 500 cGy/min from the measured value. This leakage requires no radiation shielding for the accelerator guide itself per IEC 60601-2-1.},
doi = {10.1118/1.2723878},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 5,
volume = 34,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue May 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Tue May 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • Purpose: To develop and evaluate a new four-dimensional image-guided radiotherapy system, which enables precise setup, real-time tumor tracking, and pursuit irradiation. Methods and Materials: The system has an innovative gimbaled X-ray head that enables small-angle ({+-}2.4{sup o}) rotations (pan and tilt) along the two orthogonal gimbals. This design provides for both accurate beam positioning at the isocenter by actively compensating for mechanical distortion and quick pursuit of the target. The X-ray head is composed of an ultralight C-band linear accelerator and a multileaf collimator. The gimbaled X-ray head is mounted on a rigid O-ring structure with an on-board imaging subsystemmore » composed of two sets of kilovoltage X-ray tubes and flat panel detectors, which provides a pair of radiographs, cone beam computed tomography images useful for image guided setup, and real-time fluoroscopic monitoring for pursuit irradiation. Results: The root mean square accuracy of the static beam positioning was 0.1 mm for 360{sup o} of O-ring rotation. The dynamic beam response and positioning accuracy was {+-}0.6 mm for a 0.75 Hz, 40-mm stroke and {+-}0.4 mm for a 2.0 Hz, 8-mm stroke. The quality of the images was encouraging for using the tomography-based setup. Fluoroscopic images were sufficient for monitoring and tracking lung tumors. Conclusions: Key functions and capabilities of our new system are very promising for precise image-guided setup and for tracking and pursuit irradiation of a moving target.« less
  • Purpose: To present the dosimetric characterization of a multileaf collimator (MLC) for a new four-dimensional image-guided radiotherapy system with a gimbaled x-ray head, MHI-TM2000. Methods: MHI-TM2000 has an x-ray head composed of an ultrasmall linear accelerator guide and a system-specific MLC. The x-ray head can rotate along the two orthogonal gimbals (pan and tilt rotations) up to {+-}2.5 deg., which swings the beam up to {+-}41.9 mm in each direction from the isocenter on the isocenter plane perpendicular to the beam. The MLC design is a single-focus type, has 30 pairs of 5 mm thick leaves at the isocenter, andmore » produces a maximum field size of 150x150 mm{sup 2}. Leaf height and length are 110 and 260 mm, respectively. Each leaf end is circular, with a radius of curvature of 370 mm. The distance that each leaf passes over the isocenter is 77.5 mm. Radiation leakage between adjacent leaves is minimized by an interlocking tongue-and-groove (T and G) arrangement with the height of the groove part 55 mm. The dosimetric characterizations including field characteristics, leaf position accuracy, leakage, and T and G effect were evaluated using a well-commissioned 6 MV photon beam, EDR2 films (Kodak, Rochester, NY), and water-equivalent phantoms. Furthermore, the field characteristics and leaf position accuracy were evaluated under conditions of pan or tilt rotation. Results: The differences between nominal and measured field sizes were within {+-}0.5 mm. Although the penumbra widths were greater with wider field size, the maximum width was <5.5 mm even for the fully opened field. Compared to the results of field characteristics without pan or tilt rotation, the variation in field size, penumbra width, flatness, and symmetry was within {+-}1 mm/1% at the maximum pan or tilt rotational angle. The leaf position accuracy was 0.0{+-}0.1 mm, ranging from -0.3 to 0.2 mm at four gantry angles of 0 deg., 90 deg., 180 deg., and 270 deg. with and without pan or tilt rotation. The interleaf leakage was up to 0.21%, whereas the intraleaf leakage was <0.12%. T and G decreased the doses by 10.7%, on average. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that MHI-TM2000 has the capability for high leaf position accuracy and low leakage, leading to highly accurate intensity-modulated radiotherapy delivery. Furthermore, substantial changes in the dosimetric data on field characteristics and leaf position accuracy were not observed even at the maximum pan or tilt rotation.« less
  • We are developing a four-dimensional, image-guided radiotherapy system with a gimbaled x-ray head. The system has pursuing irradiation capability in addition to precise irradiation capability, owing to its agile x-ray head. The moving x-ray head requires a very small C-band accelerator guide. The heat intensity of the accelerator guide is much higher than that of conventional S-band medical linear accelerators. The resonance frequency varies over almost 1.0 MHz with a thermal time constant of about 30 s. An automatic frequency controller (AFC) is employed to compensate for this variation in resonance frequency. Furthermore, we noted that fast AFC response ismore » important for step-and-shoot intensity modulation radiotherapy (IMRT), in which the beam is turned on and off frequently. Therefore, we invented a digital AFC, based on a new concept, to provide effective compensation for the thermal characteristics of the accelerator guide and to ensure stable and optimized x-ray treatment. An important aspect of the performance of the AFC is the capture-frequency range over which the AFC can seek, lock on to, and track the resonance frequency. The conventional, analog AFC used in S-band medical linear accelerators would have a capture-frequency range of about 0.9 MHz, if applied to our accelerator guide, and would be inappropriate. Conversely, our new AFC has a capture-frequency range of 24 MHz, which is well suited to our accelerator guide. The design concept behind this new AFC has been developed and verified. A full prototype system was constructed and tested on an existing accelerator guide at the rated x-ray output (500 cGy/min) of our radiotherapy system, with a pulse-repetition frequency of 300 Hz. The AFC acquired the resonance frequency of the accelerator guide within 0.15 s after beam-on, and provided stable tracking and adjustment of the frequency of the microwave source to the resonance frequency of the accelerator guide. With a planned improvement of the initialization of the AFC it should be able to acquire the resonance frequency within 33 ms.« less
  • Purpose: The Vero4DRT has a maximum field size of 150×150 mm{sup 2}. The purposes of this study were to develop an expanded field irradiation technique using a unique gimbaled x-ray head of Vero4DRT and to evaluate its dosimetric characteristic. Methods: The expanded field irradiation consisted of four separate fields with 2.39 degree gimbal rotation around orthogonal two axes. The central beam axis for each field shifted 40 mm from the isocenter for longitudinal and lateral directions, and thus, the field size was expanded up to 230×230 mm{sup 2}. Adjacent region were created at the isocenter (center-adjacent expanded-field) and 20 mmmore » from isocenter (offadjacent expanded-field). To create flat dose distribution in the combined piecewise-fields, the overlapping and gaps regions on the isocenter plane were adjusted with the gimbal rotating and the MLC. To evaluate dosimetric characteristic of the expanded-field, films inserted in water-equivalent phantoms at 50, 100 and 150 mm depth were irradiated and the field size, penumbra, flatness and symmetry were analyzed.In addition, the expandedfield irradiation technique was applied to IMRT. A head and neck IMRT field, which was planned for the conventional linac (Varian Clinac iX), was reproduced with the expanded-field of the Vero4DRT. The simulated dose distribution for the expanded IMRT field was compared to the measured dose distribution. Results: The field size, penumbra, flatness and symmetry of center- and off- adjacent expanded-fields were 230.2–232.1 mm, 7.8–10.7 mm, 2.3–6.5% and –0.5–0.4% at 100 mm depth. The 82.1% area of the expanded IMRT dose distribution was within 5% difference between measurement and simulation, which was analyzed upper 50% dose area, and the 3%/3 mm gamma pass rate was 98.4%. Conclusions: The expandedfield technique was developed using the gimbaled x-ray head. To extend applied targets, such as whole breast irradiations or head and neck IMRT, the expanded-field technique would be effective.« less
  • Purpose: The Vero4DRT has a unique gimbaled x-ray head with rotating around orthogonal two axes. The purpose of this study was to develop a new irradiation technique using the dynamic gimbaled x-ray head swing function. Methods: The Vero4DRT has maximum field size of 150Χ150 mm2. The expanded irradiation field (expanded-field) for the longitudinal direction which is vertical to the MLC sliding direction, was created by the MLC motion and the gimbaled x-ray head rotation. The gimbaled x-ray head was rotated ± 35 mm, and the expanded-field size was set as 150Χ220 mm2. To irradiate uniform dose distribution, the diamond-shaped radiationmore » field was created and continuously moved for the longitudinal direction. It was achieved by combination of opening and closing of the MLC and gimbal swing rotation. To evaluate dosimetric characteristic of the expanded-field, films inserted in water-equivalent phantoms at 100 mm depth were irradiated and the field size, penumbra, flatness and symmetry were analyzed.In addition, the expanded-field irradiation technique was applied to virtual wedge irradiation. Wedged beam was acquired with the delta–shaped radiation field. 150Χ 220 mm2 fields with 15, 30, 45, and 60 degree wedge were examined. The wedge angles were measured with irradiated film and compared with assumed wedge angles. Results: The field size, penumbra, flatness and symmetry of the expanded-field were 150.0 mm, 8.1–8.4 mm, 2.8% and −0.8% for the lateral direction and 220.1 mm, 6.3–6.4 mm, 3.2% and −0.4% for the longitudinal direction at 100 mm depth. The measured wedge angles were 15.1, 30.2, 45.2 and 60.2 degrees. The differences between assumed and measured angles were within 0.2 degrees. Conclusion: A new technique of the gimbal swing irradiation was developed. To extend applied targets, especially for whole breast irradiation, the expanded-field and virtual wedge irradiations would be effective.« less