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Title: Monte Carlo study of Si diode response in electron beams

Abstract

Silicon semiconductor diodes measure almost the same depth-dose distributions in both photon and electron beams as those measured by ion chambers. A recent study in ion chamber dosimetry has suggested that the wall correction factor for a parallel-plate ion chamber in electron beams changes with depth by as much as 6%. To investigate diode detector response with respect to depth, a silicon diode model is constructed and the water/silicon dose ratio at various depths in electron beams is calculated using EGSnrc. The results indicate that, for this particular diode model, the diode response per unit water dose (or water/diode dose ratio) in both 6 and 18 MeV electron beams is flat within 2% versus depth, from near the phantom surface to the depth of R{sub 50} (with calculation uncertainty <0.3%). This suggests that there must be some other correction factors for ion chambers that counter-balance the large wall correction factor at depth in electron beams. In addition, the beam quality and field-size dependence of the diode model are also calculated. The results show that the water/diode dose ratio remains constant within 2% over the electron energy range from 6 to 18 MeV. The water/diode dose ratio does not depend onmore » field size as long as the incident electron beam is broad and the electron energy is high. However, for a very small beam size (1x1 cm{sup 2}) and low electron energy (6 MeV), the water/diode dose ratio may decrease by more than 2% compared to that of a broad beam.« less

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. Physics Department, Carleton University, Ottawa K1S 5B6 (Canada)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20951304
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 34; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: DOI: 10.1118/1.2722720; (c) 2007 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; DOSIMETRY; ELECTRON BEAMS; IONIZATION CHAMBERS; MONTE CARLO METHOD; PHANTOMS; PHOTONS; RADIATION DOSES; SILICON DIODES

Citation Formats

Wang, Lilie L. W., and Rogers, David W. O. Monte Carlo study of Si diode response in electron beams. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1118/1.2722720.
Wang, Lilie L. W., & Rogers, David W. O. Monte Carlo study of Si diode response in electron beams. United States. doi:10.1118/1.2722720.
Wang, Lilie L. W., and Rogers, David W. O. Tue . "Monte Carlo study of Si diode response in electron beams". United States. doi:10.1118/1.2722720.
@article{osti_20951304,
title = {Monte Carlo study of Si diode response in electron beams},
author = {Wang, Lilie L. W. and Rogers, David W. O.},
abstractNote = {Silicon semiconductor diodes measure almost the same depth-dose distributions in both photon and electron beams as those measured by ion chambers. A recent study in ion chamber dosimetry has suggested that the wall correction factor for a parallel-plate ion chamber in electron beams changes with depth by as much as 6%. To investigate diode detector response with respect to depth, a silicon diode model is constructed and the water/silicon dose ratio at various depths in electron beams is calculated using EGSnrc. The results indicate that, for this particular diode model, the diode response per unit water dose (or water/diode dose ratio) in both 6 and 18 MeV electron beams is flat within 2% versus depth, from near the phantom surface to the depth of R{sub 50} (with calculation uncertainty <0.3%). This suggests that there must be some other correction factors for ion chambers that counter-balance the large wall correction factor at depth in electron beams. In addition, the beam quality and field-size dependence of the diode model are also calculated. The results show that the water/diode dose ratio remains constant within 2% over the electron energy range from 6 to 18 MeV. The water/diode dose ratio does not depend on field size as long as the incident electron beam is broad and the electron energy is high. However, for a very small beam size (1x1 cm{sup 2}) and low electron energy (6 MeV), the water/diode dose ratio may decrease by more than 2% compared to that of a broad beam.},
doi = {10.1118/1.2722720},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 5,
volume = 34,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue May 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Tue May 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • Purpose: By using Monte Carlo simulations, the authors investigated the energy and angular dependence of the response of plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) in photon beams. Methods: Three PSDs were modeled in this study: A plastic scintillator (BC-400) and a scintillating fiber (BCF-12), both attached by a plastic-core optical fiber stem, and a plastic scintillator (BC-400) attached by an air-core optical fiber stem with a silica tube coated with silver. The authors then calculated, with low statistical uncertainty, the energy and angular dependences of the PSDs' responses in a water phantom. For energy dependence, the response of the detectors is calculatedmore » as the detector dose per unit water dose. The perturbation caused by the optical fiber stem connected to the PSD to guide the optical light to a photodetector was studied in simulations using different optical fiber materials. Results: For the energy dependence of the PSDs in photon beams, the PSDs with plastic-core fiber have excellent energy independence within about 0.5% at photon energies ranging from 300 keV (monoenergetic) to 18 MV (linac beam). The PSD with an air-core optical fiber with a silica tube also has good energy independence within 1% in the same photon energy range. For the angular dependence, the relative response of all the three modeled PSDs is within 2% for all the angles in a 6 MV photon beam. This is also true in a 300 keV monoenergetic photon beam for PSDs with plastic-core fiber. For the PSD with an air-core fiber with a silica tube in the 300 keV beam, the relative response varies within 1% for most of the angles, except in the case when the fiber stem is pointing right to the radiation source in which case the PSD may over-response by more than 10%. Conclusions: At {+-}1% level, no beam energy correction is necessary for the response of all three PSDs modeled in this study in the photon energy ranges from 200 keV (monoenergetic) to 18 MV (linac beam). The PSD would be even closer to water equivalent if there is a silica tube around the sensitive volume. The angular dependence of the response of the three PSDs in a 6 MV photon beam is not of concern at 2% level.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate the response of plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) in a 6 MV photon beam of various field sizes using Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: Three PSDs were simulated: A BC-400 and a BCF-12, each attached to a plastic-core optical fiber, and a BC-400 attached to an air-core optical fiber. PSD response was calculated as the detector dose per unit water dose for field sizes ranging from 10x10 down to 0.5x0.5 cm{sup 2} for both perpendicular and parallel orientations of the detectors to an incident beam. Similar calculations were performed for a CC01 compact chamber. The off-axis dose profiles weremore » calculated in the 0.5x0.5 cm{sup 2} photon beam and were compared to the dose profile calculated for the CC01 chamber and that calculated in water without any detector. The angular dependence of the PSDs' responses in a small photon beam was studied. Results: In the perpendicular orientation, the response of the BCF-12 PSD varied by only 0.5% as the field size decreased from 10x10 to 0.5x0.5 cm{sup 2}, while the response of BC-400 PSD attached to a plastic-core fiber varied by more than 3% at the smallest field size because of its longer sensitive region. In the parallel orientation, the response of both PSDs attached to a plastic-core fiber varied by less than 0.4% for the same range of field sizes. For the PSD attached to an air-core fiber, the response varied, at most, by 2% for both orientations. Conclusions: The responses of all the PSDs investigated in this work can have a variation of only 1%-2% irrespective of field size and orientation of the detector if the length of the sensitive region is not more than 2 mm long and the optical fiber stems are prevented from pointing directly to the incident source.« less
  • Purpose: In a previous work, output ratio (OR{sub det}) measurements were performed for the 800 MU/min CyberKnife{sup ®} at the Oscar Lambret Center (COL, France) using several commercially available detectors as well as using two passive dosimeters (EBT2 radiochromic film and micro-LiF TLD-700). The primary aim of the present work was to determine by Monte Carlo calculations the output factor in water (OF{sub MC,w}) and the k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} correction factors. The secondary aim was to study the detector response in small beams using Monte Carlomore » simulation. Methods: The LINAC head of the CyberKnife{sup ®} was modeled using the PENELOPE Monte Carlo code system. The primary electron beam was modeled using a monoenergetic source with a radial gaussian distribution. The model was adjusted by comparisons between calculated and measured lateral profiles and tissue-phantom ratios obtained with the largest field. In addition, the PTW 60016 and 60017 diodes, PTW 60003 diamond, and micro-LiF were modeled. Output ratios with modeled detectors (OR{sub MC,det}) and OF{sub MC,w} were calculated and compared to measurements, in order to validate the model for smallest fields and to calculate k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} correction factors, respectively. For the study of the influence of detector characteristics on their response in small beams; first, the impact of the atomic composition and the mass density of silicon, LiF, and diamond materials were investigated; second, the material, the volume averaging, and the coating effects of detecting material on the detector responses were estimated. Finally, the influence of the size of silicon chip on diode response was investigated. Results: Looking at measurement ratios (uncorrected output factors) compared to the OF{sub MC,w}, the PTW 60016, 60017 and Sun Nuclear EDGE diodes systematically over-responded (about +6% for the 5 mm field), whereas the PTW 31014 Pinpoint chamber systematically under-responded (about −12% for the 5 mm field). OR{sub det} measured with the SFD diode and PTW 60003 diamond detectors were in good agreement with OF{sub MC,w} except for the 5 mm field size (about −7.5% for the diamond and +3% for the SFD). A good agreement with OF{sub MC,w} was obtained with the EBT2 film and micro-LiF dosimeters (deviation less than 1.4% for all fields investigated). k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} correction factors for several detectors used in this work have been calculated. The impact of atomic composition on the dosimetric response of detectors was found to be insignificant, unlike the mass density and size of the detecting material. Conclusions: The results obtained with the passive dosimeters showed that they can be used for small beam OF measurements without correction factors. The study of detector response showed that OR{sub det} is depending on the mass density, the volume averaging, and the coating effects of the detecting material. Each effect was quantified for the PTW 60016 and 60017 diodes, the micro-LiF, and the PTW 60003 diamond detectors. None of the active detectors used in this work can be recommended as a reference for small field dosimetry, but an improved diode detector with a smaller silicon chip coated with tissue-equivalent material is anticipated (by simulation) to be a reliable small field dosimetric detector in a nonequilibrium field.« less
  • This study investigated dosimetric changes in a water phantom when a small air cavity was presented at the central axis of a clinical electron beam. We used 6-, 9-, and 16-MeV electron beams with a 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} applicator and cutout produced by a Varian 21 EX linear accelerator. Percentage depth doses (PDDs) for different depths (0.5-7 cm), thicknesses (2-10 mm), and widths (1-5 cm) of air cavities were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations (EGSnrc code) validated by film measurements. By comparing PDDs of phantoms with and without the air cavity, it was found that when the depthmore » or thickness of cavity was changed, the PDD curve below the cavity was shifted with a distance equal to the thickness of the cavity. However, when the width of the air cavity was changed, both the PDD curve and its slope within and below the cavity were changed. A larger width of the air cavity resulted in a shallower PDD curve within the cavity. The slope of the PDD curve below the cavity tended towards a value as the width of the air cavity was increased to 3-5 cm for the 6-, 9-, and 16-MeV electron beams. The dependence of the depth dose on the width of the air cavity is a result of the contribution of the electron side scattering in the water surrounding the cavity. The change in depth dose resulting from the presence of an air cavity can cause discrepancies between the calculated and actual dose during radiotherapy, unless the effects of the air cavity are properly characterized during treatment planning. From the dosimetry data in this study, neglecting an air cavity of 1-cm thickness in the build-up region of a 6-MeV electron beam resulted in a delivered dose 10-12% larger than the original prescription. Delivered doses 3% and 6% higher than the prescribed dose were observed when doses were prescribed at R{sub 80} for a 16-MeV electron beam. These results were obtained by neglecting air cavities with thicknesses equal to 2 and 4 mm, respectively, at a depth of 5 cm.« less