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Title: High-Efficiency Volume Reflection of an Ultrarelativistic Proton Beam with a Bent Silicon Crystal

Abstract

The volume reflection phenomenon was detected while investigating 400 GeV proton interactions with bent silicon crystals in the external beam H8 of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. Such a process was observed for a wide interval of crystal orientations relative to the beam axis, and its efficiency exceeds 95%, thereby surpassing any previously observed value. These observations suggest new perspectives for the manipulation of high-energy beams, e.g., for collimation and extraction in new-generation hadron colliders, such as the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1] more »;  [2];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [4];  [5] « less
  1. CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)
  2. (United States)
  3. (Italy)
  4. (Russian Federation)
  5. (Italy) and INFN Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy) (and others)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20951236
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physical Review Letters; Journal Volume: 98; Journal Issue: 15; Other Information: DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.154801; (c) 2007 The American Physical Society; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; CERN; CERN LHC; CRYSTALS; GEV RANGE 100-1000; PROTON BEAMS; PROTONS; RELATIVISTIC RANGE; SILICON

Citation Formats

Scandale, Walter, Still, Dean A., Baricordi, Stefano, Dalpiaz, Pietro, Fiorini, Massimiliano, Guidi, Vincenzo, Martinelli, Giuliano, Mazzolari, Andrea, Milan, Emiliano, Ambrosi, Giovanni, Azzarello, Philipp, Battiston, Roberto, Bertucci, Bruna, Burger, William J., Ionica, Maria, Zuccon, Paolo, Cavoto, Gianluca, Santacesaria, Roberta, Valente, Paolo, Vallazza, Erik, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510-0500, INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara, INFN Sezione di Perugia and Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Pascoli, 06123 Perugia, INFN Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome, INFN Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste, Institute of High Energy Physics, Moscow Region, RU-142284 Protvino, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980, Dubna, Moscow Region, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188300 Gatchina, Leningrad Region, and Universita dell'Insubria, via Valleggio 11, 22100 Como. High-Efficiency Volume Reflection of an Ultrarelativistic Proton Beam with a Bent Silicon Crystal. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVLETT.98.154801.
Scandale, Walter, Still, Dean A., Baricordi, Stefano, Dalpiaz, Pietro, Fiorini, Massimiliano, Guidi, Vincenzo, Martinelli, Giuliano, Mazzolari, Andrea, Milan, Emiliano, Ambrosi, Giovanni, Azzarello, Philipp, Battiston, Roberto, Bertucci, Bruna, Burger, William J., Ionica, Maria, Zuccon, Paolo, Cavoto, Gianluca, Santacesaria, Roberta, Valente, Paolo, Vallazza, Erik, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510-0500, INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara, INFN Sezione di Perugia and Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Pascoli, 06123 Perugia, INFN Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome, INFN Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste, Institute of High Energy Physics, Moscow Region, RU-142284 Protvino, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980, Dubna, Moscow Region, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188300 Gatchina, Leningrad Region, & Universita dell'Insubria, via Valleggio 11, 22100 Como. High-Efficiency Volume Reflection of an Ultrarelativistic Proton Beam with a Bent Silicon Crystal. United States. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVLETT.98.154801.
Scandale, Walter, Still, Dean A., Baricordi, Stefano, Dalpiaz, Pietro, Fiorini, Massimiliano, Guidi, Vincenzo, Martinelli, Giuliano, Mazzolari, Andrea, Milan, Emiliano, Ambrosi, Giovanni, Azzarello, Philipp, Battiston, Roberto, Bertucci, Bruna, Burger, William J., Ionica, Maria, Zuccon, Paolo, Cavoto, Gianluca, Santacesaria, Roberta, Valente, Paolo, Vallazza, Erik, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510-0500, INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara, INFN Sezione di Perugia and Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Pascoli, 06123 Perugia, INFN Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome, INFN Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste, Institute of High Energy Physics, Moscow Region, RU-142284 Protvino, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980, Dubna, Moscow Region, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188300 Gatchina, Leningrad Region, and Universita dell'Insubria, via Valleggio 11, 22100 Como. Fri . "High-Efficiency Volume Reflection of an Ultrarelativistic Proton Beam with a Bent Silicon Crystal". United States. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVLETT.98.154801.
@article{osti_20951236,
title = {High-Efficiency Volume Reflection of an Ultrarelativistic Proton Beam with a Bent Silicon Crystal},
author = {Scandale, Walter and Still, Dean A. and Baricordi, Stefano and Dalpiaz, Pietro and Fiorini, Massimiliano and Guidi, Vincenzo and Martinelli, Giuliano and Mazzolari, Andrea and Milan, Emiliano and Ambrosi, Giovanni and Azzarello, Philipp and Battiston, Roberto and Bertucci, Bruna and Burger, William J. and Ionica, Maria and Zuccon, Paolo and Cavoto, Gianluca and Santacesaria, Roberta and Valente, Paolo and Vallazza, Erik and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510-0500 and INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara and INFN Sezione di Perugia and Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Pascoli, 06123 Perugia and INFN Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome and INFN Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste and Institute of High Energy Physics, Moscow Region, RU-142284 Protvino and Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980, Dubna, Moscow Region and Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188300 Gatchina, Leningrad Region and Universita dell'Insubria, via Valleggio 11, 22100 Como},
abstractNote = {The volume reflection phenomenon was detected while investigating 400 GeV proton interactions with bent silicon crystals in the external beam H8 of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. Such a process was observed for a wide interval of crystal orientations relative to the beam axis, and its efficiency exceeds 95%, thereby surpassing any previously observed value. These observations suggest new perspectives for the manipulation of high-energy beams, e.g., for collimation and extraction in new-generation hadron colliders, such as the CERN Large Hadron Collider.},
doi = {10.1103/PHYSREVLETT.98.154801},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = 15,
volume = 98,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Apr 13 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Fri Apr 13 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • Volume reflection predicted in the mid-1980s by Taratin and Vorobiev has been observed for the first time in the interactions of a 70 GeV proton beam with a short bent crystal. Incident protons deviate from convex atomic planes in the bulk of the crystal as a result of coherent interaction with bent lattice around the tangency point of particle trajectory with a curved atomic plane. The deflection angle 2{theta}{sub R} was found to be (39.5{+-}2.0) {mu}rad, or (1.65{+-}0.08){theta}{sub c} in terms of the critical angle for channeling. The process has a large probability with respect to channeling and takes placemore » in the angular range equal to the bend angle of atomic planes. It could possibly open new fields of application of crystals in high-energy particle beam optics.« less
  • The interactions of 400 GeV protons with different sequences of bent silicon crystals have been investigated at the H8 beam line of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. The multiple volume reflection of the proton beam has been studied in detail on a five-crystal reflector measuring an angular beam deflection {theta}=52.96{+-}0.14 {mu}rad. The efficiency was found larger than 80% for an angular acceptance at the reflector entrance of 70 {mu}rad, with a maximal efficiency value of {epsilon}=0.90{+-}0.01{+-}0.03.
  • Curved crystals, thanks to the electrostatic potential generated by the coherent atomic structure, may deflect ultrarelativistic charged particles by means of channeling and volume reflection effects. Most of the experimental knowledge about these phenomena was gathered with Si crystals, though the performance could be improved by using materials with a larger atomic number. In this letter, we investigate planar and axial channeling and volume reflection in a high quality Ge short strip crystal. All the effects are demonstrated to occur in agreement with theoretical expectations, which take into account the stronger confinement potential for an ideal Ge crystal.
  • We present the experimental data and analysis of experiments conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory investigating the processes of channeling, volume-reflection and volume-capture along the (111) plane in a strongly bent quasi-mosaic silicon crystal. Additionally, these phenomena were investigated at 5 energies: 3.35, 4.2, 6.3, 10.5 and 14.0 GeV with a crystal with bending radius of 0.15m, corresponding to curvatures of 0.070, 0.088, 0.13, 0.22 and 0.29 times the critical curvature respectively. We have extracted important parameters describing the channeling process such as the dechanneling length, the angle of volume reflection, the surface transmission and the widths of the distributionmore » of channeled particles parallel and orthogonal to the plane.« less
  • Here, we present the experimental data and analysis of experiments conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory investigating the processes of channeling, volume-reflection and volume-capture along the (111) plane in a strongly bent quasimosaic silicon crystal. These phenomena were investigated at 5 energies: 3.35, 4.2, 6.3, 10.5, and 14.0 GeV with a crystal with bending radius of 0.15 m, corresponding to curvatures of 0.053, 0.066, 0.099, 0.16, and 0.22 times the critical curvature, respectively. Based on the parameters of fitting functions we have extracted important parameters describing the channeling process such as the dechanneling length, the angle of volume reflection, themore » surface transmission, and the widths of the distribution of channeled particles parallel and orthogonal to the plane.« less