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Title: Survey of computed tomography scanners in Taiwan: Dose descriptors, dose guidance levels, and effective doses

Abstract

The IAEA and the ICRP recommended dose guidance levels for the most frequent computed tomography (CT) examinations to promote strategies for the optimization of radiation dose to CT patients. A national survey, including on-site measurements and questionnaires, was conducted in Taiwan in order to establish dose guidance levels and evaluate effective doses for CT. The beam quality and output and the phantom doses were measured for nine representative CT scanners. Questionnaire forms were completed by respondents from facilities of 146 CT scanners out of 285 total scanners. Information on patient, procedure, scanner, and technique for the head and body examinations was provided. The weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDI{sub w}), the dose length product (DLP), organ doses and effective dose were calculated using measured data, questionnaire information and Monte Carlo simulation results. A cost-effective analysis was applied to derive the dose guidance levels on CTDI{sub w} and DLP for several CT examinations. The mean effective dose{+-}standard deviation distributes from 1.6{+-}0.9 mSv for the routine head examination to 13{+-}11 mSv for the examination of liver, spleen, and pancreas. The surveyed results and the dose guidance levels were provided to the national authorities to develop quality control standards and protocols for CTmore » examinations.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [2];  [2]
  1. Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan and Department of Radiology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)
  2. (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20951144
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 34; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: DOI: 10.1118/1.2712412; (c) 2007 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; HEAD; IAEA; ICRP; LIVER; MONTE CARLO METHOD; OPTIMIZATION; PANCREAS; PATIENTS; PHANTOMS; QUALITY CONTROL; RADIATION DOSES; SPLEEN; TAIWAN

Citation Formats

Tsai, H. Y., Tung, C. J., Yu, C. C., Tyan, Y. S., Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, Department of Radiological Technology, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, and Department of Radiology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan. Survey of computed tomography scanners in Taiwan: Dose descriptors, dose guidance levels, and effective doses. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1118/1.2712412.
Tsai, H. Y., Tung, C. J., Yu, C. C., Tyan, Y. S., Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, Department of Radiological Technology, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, & Department of Radiology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan. Survey of computed tomography scanners in Taiwan: Dose descriptors, dose guidance levels, and effective doses. United States. doi:10.1118/1.2712412.
Tsai, H. Y., Tung, C. J., Yu, C. C., Tyan, Y. S., Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, Department of Radiological Technology, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, and Department of Radiology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan. Sun . "Survey of computed tomography scanners in Taiwan: Dose descriptors, dose guidance levels, and effective doses". United States. doi:10.1118/1.2712412.
@article{osti_20951144,
title = {Survey of computed tomography scanners in Taiwan: Dose descriptors, dose guidance levels, and effective doses},
author = {Tsai, H. Y. and Tung, C. J. and Yu, C. C. and Tyan, Y. S. and Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan and Department of Radiological Technology, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan and Department of Radiology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan},
abstractNote = {The IAEA and the ICRP recommended dose guidance levels for the most frequent computed tomography (CT) examinations to promote strategies for the optimization of radiation dose to CT patients. A national survey, including on-site measurements and questionnaires, was conducted in Taiwan in order to establish dose guidance levels and evaluate effective doses for CT. The beam quality and output and the phantom doses were measured for nine representative CT scanners. Questionnaire forms were completed by respondents from facilities of 146 CT scanners out of 285 total scanners. Information on patient, procedure, scanner, and technique for the head and body examinations was provided. The weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDI{sub w}), the dose length product (DLP), organ doses and effective dose were calculated using measured data, questionnaire information and Monte Carlo simulation results. A cost-effective analysis was applied to derive the dose guidance levels on CTDI{sub w} and DLP for several CT examinations. The mean effective dose{+-}standard deviation distributes from 1.6{+-}0.9 mSv for the routine head examination to 13{+-}11 mSv for the examination of liver, spleen, and pancreas. The surveyed results and the dose guidance levels were provided to the national authorities to develop quality control standards and protocols for CT examinations.},
doi = {10.1118/1.2712412},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 4,
volume = 34,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Sun Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • A weakness in the dose descriptor, the computed tomography dosimetry index, is discussed and an alternate descriptor is proposed. The new descriptor, the equivalent rectangular width, conveniently expresses the spatial spread of dose and is simply derived from customary dose measurements. A measure of performance, which expresses the relative size of the volume being imaged with respect to the volume receiving the dose, is suggested for computed tomography. 87.70.Es, 87.60.Mv.
  • Purpose: To compare dosimetric properties and patient organ doses from four commercial multidetector CT (MDCT) using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation based on the absorbed dose measured using a Farmer chamber and cylindrical water phantoms according to AAPM TG-111. Methods: Four commercial MDCT were modeled using the GMctdospp (IMPS, Germany) based on the EGSnrc user code. The incident photon spectrum and bowtie filter for MC simulations were determined so that calculated values of aluminum half-value layer (Al-HVL) and off-center ratio (OCR) profile in air agreed with measured values. The MC dose was calibrated from absorbed dose measurements using a Farmer chambermore » and cylindrical water phantoms. The dose distributions of head, chest, and abdominal scan were calculated using patient CT images and mean organ doses were evaluated from dose volume histograms. Results: The HVLs at 120 kVp of Brilliance, LightSpeed, Aquilion, and SOMATOM were 9.1, 7.5, 7.2, and 8.7 mm, respectively. The calculated Al-HVLs agreed with measurements within 0.3%. The calculated and measured OCR profiles agreed within 5%. For adult head scans, mean doses for eye lens from Brilliance, LightSpeed, Aquilion, and SOMATOM were 21.7, 38.5, 47.2 and 28.4 mGy, respectively. For chest scans, mean doses for lung from Brilliance, LightSpeed, Aquilion, and SOMATOM were 21.1, 26.1, 35.3 and 24.0 mGy, respectively. For adult abdominal scans, the mean doses for liver from Brilliance, LightSpeed, Aquilion, and SOMATOM were 16.5, 21.3, 22.7, and 18.0 mGy, respectively. The absorbed doses increased with decreasing Al-HVL. The organ doses from Aquilion were two greater than those from Brilliance in head scan. Conclusion: MC dose distributions based on absorbed dose measurement in cylindrical water phantom are useful to evaluate individual patient organ doses.« less
  • PurposeA technique for computed tomography fluoroscopy (CTF)-guided intraarticular (IA) sacroiliac joint (SIJ) injection was devised to limit procedural time and radiation dose.MethodsOur Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective analysis and waived the requirement for informed consent. Overall, 36 consecutive diagnostic or therapeutic IA SIJ injections (unilateral, 20; bilateral, 16) performed in 34 patients (female, 18; male, 16) with a mean age of 45.5 years (range 20–76 years) under CTF guidance were analyzed, assessing technical success (i.e., IA contrast spread), procedural time, and radiation dose.ResultsAll injections were successful from a technical perspective and were free of serious complications. Respective median proceduralmore » times and effective doses of SIJ injection were as follows: unilateral, 5.28 min (range 3.58–8.00 min) and 0.11 millisievert (mSv; range 0.07–0.24 mSv); and bilateral, 6.72 min (range 4.17–21.17 min) and 0.11 mSv (range 0.09–0.51 mSv).ConclusionsGiven the high rate of technical success achieved in limited time duration and with little radiation exposure, CTF-guided IA SIJ injection is a practical and low-risk procedure.« less
  • The purpose of this study is to provide a method and required data for the estimation of effective dose (E) values to adult and pediatric patients from computed tomography (CT) scans of the head, chest abdomen, and pelvis, performed on multi-slice scanners. Mean section radiation dose (d{sub m}) to cylindrical water phantoms of varying radius normalized over CT dose index free-in-air (CTDI{sub F}) were calculated for the head and body scanning modes of a multislice scanner with use of Monte Carlo techniques. Patients were modeled as equivalent water phantoms and the energy imparted ({epsilon}) to simulated pediatric and adult patientsmore » was calculated on the basis of measured CTDI{sub F} values. Body region specific energy imparted to effective dose conversion coefficients (E/{epsilon}) for adult male and female patients were generated from previous data. Effective doses to patients aged newborn to adult were derived for all available helical and axial beam collimations, taking into account age specific patient mass and scanning length. Depending on high voltage, body region, and patient sex, E/{epsilon} values ranged from 0.008 mSv/mJ for head scans to 0.024 mSv/mJ for chest scans. When scanned with the same technique factors as the adults, pediatric patients absorb as little as 5% of the energy imparted to adults, but corresponding effective dose values are up to a factor of 1.6 higher. On average, pediatric patients absorb 44% less energy per examination but have a 24% higher effective dose, compared with adults. In clinical practice, effective dose values to pediatric patients are 2.5 to 10 times lower than in adults due to the adaptation of tube current. A method is provided for the calculation of effective dose to adult and pediatric patients on the basis of individual patient characteristics such as sex, mass, dimensions, and density of imaged anatomy, and the technical features of modern multislice scanners. It allows the optimum selection of scanning parameters regarding patient doses a0010t.« less
  • In the present study effective dose values normalized to computed tomography dose index measured free in air were calculated for adult, newborn, 1, 5, 10 and 15 year old patients regarding scans of the head, chest, abdomen, pelvis, abdomen and pelvis, and trunk, using the energy imparted method. The effect of z overscanning on patient doses was accounted for, and normalized doses are provided for varying beam collimation, pitch and reconstruction slice width values. The contribution of overscanning depends on patient age, anatomic region imaged, acquisition and reconstruction settings. For a head scan it constitutes 15% of the adult effectivemore » dose and 24% of the effective dose to a newborn but for an abdomen scan it may be as high as 58% for a newborn and 31% for an adult. The ratios of normalized pediatric doses relative to that for adults for helical scans depend not only on age but also on acquisition and reconstruction parameters, because of variations in the relative distance between the primary beam and the radiosensitive tissues/organs of the body. Regarding scans of the trunk, pediatric doses are up to a factor of 2.5 times higher compared to adult doses (abdominal scans), whereas for scans of the head up to a factor of 1.5. Increasing the pitch value of helical scans while maintaining the same effective mAs setting, and hence noise levels, leads to an increase in patient doses which depends on age, body region, scan and reconstruction parameters. The % difference between doses at pitch 1.5 and pitch 1 is more pronounced in the abdominal region (14% increase for adults) and in young patients (31% in a newborn and 18% in a 10 year old patient) and it is minimal in head scans (4% increase in newborns and 1% in adults). If multiple body regions are to be imaged, doses to adults can be reduced by up to 15% and 36% to children by performing single long-range scans. Scanning adult patients at 100 kVp instead of 120 kVp, results in a 32% reduction in effective dose from head scans and 38% for scans of the torso. The corresponding reduction for a 5 year old patient is 31% for the head and 37% for the trunk. Due to the combined overbeaming and overscanning effect the 24 mm collimation is more dose effective in the head mode and the 12 mm collimation in the body mode. Provided data enable informed design of examination protocols, calculation of effective dose values and familiarization with the technical features of multi-detector technology.« less