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Title: Energy imparted-based estimates of the effect of z overscanning on adult and pediatric patient effective doses from multi-slice computed tomography

Abstract

In the present study effective dose values normalized to computed tomography dose index measured free in air were calculated for adult, newborn, 1, 5, 10 and 15 year old patients regarding scans of the head, chest, abdomen, pelvis, abdomen and pelvis, and trunk, using the energy imparted method. The effect of z overscanning on patient doses was accounted for, and normalized doses are provided for varying beam collimation, pitch and reconstruction slice width values. The contribution of overscanning depends on patient age, anatomic region imaged, acquisition and reconstruction settings. For a head scan it constitutes 15% of the adult effective dose and 24% of the effective dose to a newborn but for an abdomen scan it may be as high as 58% for a newborn and 31% for an adult. The ratios of normalized pediatric doses relative to that for adults for helical scans depend not only on age but also on acquisition and reconstruction parameters, because of variations in the relative distance between the primary beam and the radiosensitive tissues/organs of the body. Regarding scans of the trunk, pediatric doses are up to a factor of 2.5 times higher compared to adult doses (abdominal scans), whereas for scans ofmore » the head up to a factor of 1.5. Increasing the pitch value of helical scans while maintaining the same effective mAs setting, and hence noise levels, leads to an increase in patient doses which depends on age, body region, scan and reconstruction parameters. The % difference between doses at pitch 1.5 and pitch 1 is more pronounced in the abdominal region (14% increase for adults) and in young patients (31% in a newborn and 18% in a 10 year old patient) and it is minimal in head scans (4% increase in newborns and 1% in adults). If multiple body regions are to be imaged, doses to adults can be reduced by up to 15% and 36% to children by performing single long-range scans. Scanning adult patients at 100 kVp instead of 120 kVp, results in a 32% reduction in effective dose from head scans and 38% for scans of the torso. The corresponding reduction for a 5 year old patient is 31% for the head and 37% for the trunk. Due to the combined overbeaming and overscanning effect the 24 mm collimation is more dose effective in the head mode and the 12 mm collimation in the body mode. Provided data enable informed design of examination protocols, calculation of effective dose values and familiarization with the technical features of multi-detector technology.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [2]
  1. Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, Iraklion 71003, Crete (Greece) and Department of Natural Sciences, Technological Education Institute of Crete, P.O. Box 140, Iraklion 71004, Crete (Greece)
  2. (Greece)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20951135
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 34; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: DOI: 10.1118/1.2436980; (c) 2007 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; ABDOMEN; CHEST; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; DESIGN; DOSIMETRY; HEAD; IMAGE PROCESSING; NOISE; ORGANS; PATIENTS; PEDIATRICS; PELVIS; RADIATION DOSES

Citation Formats

Theocharopoulos, Nicholas, Damilakis, John, Perisinakis, Kostas, Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas, Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, Iraklion 71003, Crete, and Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P. O. Box 2208, Iraklion 71003, Crete. Energy imparted-based estimates of the effect of z overscanning on adult and pediatric patient effective doses from multi-slice computed tomography. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1118/1.2436980.
Theocharopoulos, Nicholas, Damilakis, John, Perisinakis, Kostas, Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas, Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, Iraklion 71003, Crete, & Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P. O. Box 2208, Iraklion 71003, Crete. Energy imparted-based estimates of the effect of z overscanning on adult and pediatric patient effective doses from multi-slice computed tomography. United States. doi:10.1118/1.2436980.
Theocharopoulos, Nicholas, Damilakis, John, Perisinakis, Kostas, Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas, Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, Iraklion 71003, Crete, and Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P. O. Box 2208, Iraklion 71003, Crete. Sun . "Energy imparted-based estimates of the effect of z overscanning on adult and pediatric patient effective doses from multi-slice computed tomography". United States. doi:10.1118/1.2436980.
@article{osti_20951135,
title = {Energy imparted-based estimates of the effect of z overscanning on adult and pediatric patient effective doses from multi-slice computed tomography},
author = {Theocharopoulos, Nicholas and Damilakis, John and Perisinakis, Kostas and Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas and Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, Iraklion 71003, Crete and Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P. O. Box 2208, Iraklion 71003, Crete},
abstractNote = {In the present study effective dose values normalized to computed tomography dose index measured free in air were calculated for adult, newborn, 1, 5, 10 and 15 year old patients regarding scans of the head, chest, abdomen, pelvis, abdomen and pelvis, and trunk, using the energy imparted method. The effect of z overscanning on patient doses was accounted for, and normalized doses are provided for varying beam collimation, pitch and reconstruction slice width values. The contribution of overscanning depends on patient age, anatomic region imaged, acquisition and reconstruction settings. For a head scan it constitutes 15% of the adult effective dose and 24% of the effective dose to a newborn but for an abdomen scan it may be as high as 58% for a newborn and 31% for an adult. The ratios of normalized pediatric doses relative to that for adults for helical scans depend not only on age but also on acquisition and reconstruction parameters, because of variations in the relative distance between the primary beam and the radiosensitive tissues/organs of the body. Regarding scans of the trunk, pediatric doses are up to a factor of 2.5 times higher compared to adult doses (abdominal scans), whereas for scans of the head up to a factor of 1.5. Increasing the pitch value of helical scans while maintaining the same effective mAs setting, and hence noise levels, leads to an increase in patient doses which depends on age, body region, scan and reconstruction parameters. The % difference between doses at pitch 1.5 and pitch 1 is more pronounced in the abdominal region (14% increase for adults) and in young patients (31% in a newborn and 18% in a 10 year old patient) and it is minimal in head scans (4% increase in newborns and 1% in adults). If multiple body regions are to be imaged, doses to adults can be reduced by up to 15% and 36% to children by performing single long-range scans. Scanning adult patients at 100 kVp instead of 120 kVp, results in a 32% reduction in effective dose from head scans and 38% for scans of the torso. The corresponding reduction for a 5 year old patient is 31% for the head and 37% for the trunk. Due to the combined overbeaming and overscanning effect the 24 mm collimation is more dose effective in the head mode and the 12 mm collimation in the body mode. Provided data enable informed design of examination protocols, calculation of effective dose values and familiarization with the technical features of multi-detector technology.},
doi = {10.1118/1.2436980},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 4,
volume = 34,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Sun Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}