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Title: Measurement of Gamma Knife registered helmet factors using MOSFETs

Abstract

The relative dose rate for the different Gamma Knife registered helmets (4, 8, 14, and 18 mm) is characterized by their respective helmet factors. Since the plateau of the dose profile for the 4 mm helmet is at most 1 mm wide, detector choices are limited. Traditionally helmet factors have been measured using 1x1x1 mm{sup 3} thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). However, these are time-consuming, cumbersome measurements. This article investigates the use of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) (active area of 0.2x0.2 mm{sup 2}) as a more accurate and convenient dosimeter. Their suitability for these measurements was confirmed by basic characterization measurements. Helmet factors were measured using both MOSFETs and the established TLD approach. A custom MOSFET cassette was designed in analogy to the Elekta TLD cassette (Elekta Instruments AB) for use with the Elekta dosimetry sphere. Although both dosimeters provided values within 3% of the manufacturer's suggestion, MOSFETs provided superior accuracy and precision, in a fraction of the time required for the TLD measurements. Thus, MOSFETs proved to be a reasonable alternative to TLDs for performing helmet factor measurements.

Authors:
;  [1];  [2];  [2];  [3]
  1. Department of Physics, University of Winnipeg, 515 Portage Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B 2E9 (Canada)
  2. (Canada)
  3. (Canada) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg MB R3E 0V9 (Canada)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20951090
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 34; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: DOI: 10.1118/1.2437282; (c) 2007 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ACCURACY; DOSE RATES; DOSIMETRY; MOSFET; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS; THERMOLUMINESCENT DOSEMETERS

Citation Formats

Kurjewicz, Laryssa, Berndt, Anita, Division of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9, Winnipeg Centre for Gamma Knife Surgery, Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg Regional Health Authority, Winnipeg MB R3E 0V9, and Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Department of Radiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg MB R3E 0V9. Measurement of Gamma Knife registered helmet factors using MOSFETs. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1118/1.2437282.
Kurjewicz, Laryssa, Berndt, Anita, Division of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9, Winnipeg Centre for Gamma Knife Surgery, Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg Regional Health Authority, Winnipeg MB R3E 0V9, & Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Department of Radiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg MB R3E 0V9. Measurement of Gamma Knife registered helmet factors using MOSFETs. United States. doi:10.1118/1.2437282.
Kurjewicz, Laryssa, Berndt, Anita, Division of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9, Winnipeg Centre for Gamma Knife Surgery, Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg Regional Health Authority, Winnipeg MB R3E 0V9, and Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Department of Radiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg MB R3E 0V9. Thu . "Measurement of Gamma Knife registered helmet factors using MOSFETs". United States. doi:10.1118/1.2437282.
@article{osti_20951090,
title = {Measurement of Gamma Knife registered helmet factors using MOSFETs},
author = {Kurjewicz, Laryssa and Berndt, Anita and Division of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 and Winnipeg Centre for Gamma Knife Surgery, Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg Regional Health Authority, Winnipeg MB R3E 0V9 and Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Department of Radiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg MB R3E 0V9},
abstractNote = {The relative dose rate for the different Gamma Knife registered helmets (4, 8, 14, and 18 mm) is characterized by their respective helmet factors. Since the plateau of the dose profile for the 4 mm helmet is at most 1 mm wide, detector choices are limited. Traditionally helmet factors have been measured using 1x1x1 mm{sup 3} thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). However, these are time-consuming, cumbersome measurements. This article investigates the use of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) (active area of 0.2x0.2 mm{sup 2}) as a more accurate and convenient dosimeter. Their suitability for these measurements was confirmed by basic characterization measurements. Helmet factors were measured using both MOSFETs and the established TLD approach. A custom MOSFET cassette was designed in analogy to the Elekta TLD cassette (Elekta Instruments AB) for use with the Elekta dosimetry sphere. Although both dosimeters provided values within 3% of the manufacturer's suggestion, MOSFETs provided superior accuracy and precision, in a fraction of the time required for the TLD measurements. Thus, MOSFETs proved to be a reasonable alternative to TLDs for performing helmet factor measurements.},
doi = {10.1118/1.2437282},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 3,
volume = 34,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Thu Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • Purpose: Most Gamma knife treatments are based solely on MR-images. However, for fractionated treatments and to implement TPS dose calculations that require electron densities, CT image data is essential. The purpose of this work is to assess the dosimetric effects of using MR-images registered with stereotactic CT-images in Gamma knife treatments. Methods: Twelve patients treated for vestibular schwannoma with Gamma Knife Perfexion (Elekta Instruments, Sweden) were selected for this study. The prescribed doses (12 Gy to periphery) were delivered based on the conventional approach of using stereotactic MR-images only. These plans were imported into stereotactic CT-images (by registering MR-images withmore » stereotactic CT-images using the Leksell gamma plan registration software). The dose plans, for each patient, are identical in both cases except for potential rotations and translations resulting from the registration. The impact of the registrations was assessed by an algorithm written in Matlab. The algorithm compares the dose-distributions voxel-by-voxel between the two plans, calculates the full dose coverage of the target (treated in the conventional approach) achieved by the CT-based plan, and calculates the minimum dose delivered to the target (treated in the conventional approach) achieved by the CT-based plan. Results: The mean dose difference between the plans was 0.2 Gy to 0.4 Gy (max 4.5 Gy) whereas between 89% and 97% of the target (treated in the conventional approach) received the prescribed dose, by the CT-plan. The minimum dose to the target (treated in the conventional approach) given by the CT-based plan was between 7.9 Gy and 10.7 Gy (compared to 12 Gy in the conventional treatment). Conclusion: The impact of using MR-images registered with stereotactic CT-images has successfully been compared to conventionally delivered dose plans showing significant differences between the two. Although CTimages have been implemented clinically; the effect of the registration has not been fully investigated.« less
  • Purpose: To measure the absorbed dose rate to water of {sup 60}Co gamma rays of a Gamma Knife Model C using water-filled phantoms (WFP). Methods and Materials: Spherical WFP with an equivalent water depth of 5, 7, 8, and 9 cm were constructed. The dose rates at the center of an 18-mm helmet were measured in an 8-cm WFP (WFP-3) and two plastic phantoms. Two independent measurement systems were used: one was calibrated to an air kerma (Set I) and the other was calibrated to the absorbed dose to water (Set II). The dose rates of WFP-3 and the plasticmore » phantoms were converted to dose rates for an 8-cm water depth using the attenuation coefficient and the equivalent water depths. Results: The dose rate measured at the center of WFP-3 using Set II was 2.2% and 1.0% higher than dose rates measured at the center of the two plastic phantoms. The measured effective attenuation coefficient of Gamma Knife photon beam in WFPs was 0.0621 cm{sup -1}. After attenuation correction, the difference between the dose rate at an 8-cm water depth measured in WFP-3 and dose rates in the plastic phantoms was smaller than the uncertainty of the measurements. Conclusions: Systematic errors related to the characteristics of the phantom materials in the dose rate measurement of a Gamma Knife need to be corrected for. Correction of the dose rate using an equivalent water depth and attenuation provided results that were more consistent.« less
  • This study proposes and simulates an inverse treatment planning and a continuous dose delivery approach for the Leksell Gamma Knife registered (LGK, Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden) which we refer to as 'Tomosurgery'. Tomosurgery uses an isocenter that moves within the irradiation field to continuously deliver the prescribed radiation dose in a raster-scanning format, slice by slice, within an intracranial lesion. Our Tomosurgery automated (inverse) treatment planning algorithm utilizes a two-stage optimization strategy. The first stage reduces the current three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning problem to a series of more easily solved 2D treatment planning subproblems. In the second stage, those 2D treatmentmore » plans are assembled to obtain a final 3D treatment plan for the entire lesion. We created Tomosurgery treatment plans for 11 patients who had already received manually-generated LGK treatment plans to treat brain tumors. For the seven cases without critical structures (CS), the Tomosurgery treatment plans showed borderline to significant improvement in within-tumor dose standard deviation (STD) (p<0.058, or p<0.011 excluding case 2) and conformality (p<0.042), respectively. In three of the four cases that presented CS, the Tomosurgery treatment plans showed no statistically significant improvements in dose conformality (p<0.184), and borderline significance in improving within-tumor dose homogeneity (p<0.054); CS damage measured by V{sub 20} or V{sub 30} (i.e., irradiated CS volume that receives {>=}20% or {>=}30% of the maximum dose) showed no significant improvement in the Tomosurgery treatment plans (p<0.345 and p<0.423, respectively). However, the overall CS dose volume histograms were improved in the Tomosurgery treatment plans. In addition, the LGK Tomosurgery inverse treatment planning required less time than standard of care, forward (manual) LGK treatment planning (i.e., 5-35 min vs 1-3 h) for all 11 cases. We expect that LGK Tomosurgery will speed treatment planning and improve treatment quality, especially for large and/or geometrically complex lesions. However, using only 4 mm collimators could greatly increase treatment plan delivery time for a large brain lesion. This issue is subject to further investigation.« less
  • We investigated the amplification of discrepancy when using multiple shots of the same collimator size helmet, by comparing dose plans in the Leksell GammaPlan registered employing the default single-beam dose profiles and the Monte Carlo generated single-beam profiles. Four collimator helmets were studied. The results show that the largest amplification of discrepancy with multiple shots was found with the 8 mm collimator because of the largest discrepancy of its single-beam dose profile. The amplification of discrepancy is significant when tumor volumes increase but insignificant when the tumor volumes are in an elongated shape. Using close shot overlapping strategy (i.e., moremore » shots close packed together) shows no observable increase in the amplification of discrepancy. For the best quality of Leksell Gamma Knife registered radiosurgery, it is suggested that the single-beam dose profiles should be refined, especially the 8 mm collimator, to prevent error amplification when using multiple collimator shots.« less
  • The calibration of Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion (LGK PFX) is performed using a spherical polystyrene phantom 160 mm in diameter, which is provided by the manufacturer. This is the same phantom that has been used with LGK models U, B, C, and 4C. The polystyrene phantom is held in irradiation position by an aluminum adaptor, which has stainless steel side-fixation screws. The phantom adaptor partially attenuates the beams from sectors 3 and 7 by 3.2% and 4.6%, respectively. This unintended attenuation introduces a systematic error in dose calibration. The overall effect of phantom-adaptor attenuation on output calibration of the LGKmore » PFX unit is to underestimate output by about 1.0%.« less