skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Retinoblastoma-comparative analysis of external radiotherapy techniques, including an IMRT technique

Abstract

Purpose: To compare the numerous external radiotherapy (RT) techniques for the treatment of retinoblastoma, as well as an intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) technique. The latter was elaborated to evaluate the potential dose reduction in the surrounding tissue, as well as the potential avoidance of subdosage in the ora serrata retinae. Methods and Materials: A 2-year-old patient with unilateral retinoblastoma underwent CT. With the aid of an ophthalmologist, the ocular structures were delimited, and 13 techniques described in published reports were reproduced on three-dimensional planning software and identified according to their authors. A technique with four noncoplanar fields using IMRT was also elaborated. These techniques were compared according to the dose to the ora serrata retinae, lens, orbit (volume that received a dose of {>=}20 Gy), vitreous, optic nerve, lacrimal gland (volume that received a dose of {>=}34 Gy), and cornea and according to their ease of reproducibility. Results: The techniques that attained the therapeutic dose to the ora serrata retinae were the IMRT technique and the techniques of Haye, Cassady, Cormack, and al-Beteri. The Cormack technique had the lowest volume that received a dose of {>=}20 Gy in the orbit, followed by the IMRT technique. The IMRT technique also achieved themore » lowest volume that received a dose of {>=}34 Gy (14%) in the lacrimal gland. The Abramson/McCormick/Blach, Cassady, Reese, and Schipper techniques were the easiest to reproduce and the Chin the most complex. Conclusion: Retinoblastoma treatment with IMRT has an advantage over the other techniques, because it allows for the greatest reduction of dose to the orbit and lacrimal gland, while maintaining the therapeutic dose to the ora serrata retinae and vitreous.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [3]; ;  [2];  [4]
  1. Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). E-mail: mreisner@uol.com.br
  2. Department of Radiation Oncology, Instituto Nacional de Cancer, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
  3. Division of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Instituto Nacional de Cancer, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
  4. Department of Radiology, Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20944748
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics; Journal Volume: 67; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2006.09.057; PII: S0360-3016(06)03382-7; Copyright (c) 2007 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; COMPUTER CODES; CORNEA; GLANDS; GLIOMAS; PLANNING; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Reisner, Marcio Lemberg, Viegas, Celia Maria Pais, Grazziotin, Rachele Zanchet, Santos Batista, Delano Valdivino, Carneiro, Tulio Meneses, Mendonca de Araujo, Carlos Manoel, and Marchiori, Edson. Retinoblastoma-comparative analysis of external radiotherapy techniques, including an IMRT technique. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2006.09.057.
Reisner, Marcio Lemberg, Viegas, Celia Maria Pais, Grazziotin, Rachele Zanchet, Santos Batista, Delano Valdivino, Carneiro, Tulio Meneses, Mendonca de Araujo, Carlos Manoel, & Marchiori, Edson. Retinoblastoma-comparative analysis of external radiotherapy techniques, including an IMRT technique. United States. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2006.09.057.
Reisner, Marcio Lemberg, Viegas, Celia Maria Pais, Grazziotin, Rachele Zanchet, Santos Batista, Delano Valdivino, Carneiro, Tulio Meneses, Mendonca de Araujo, Carlos Manoel, and Marchiori, Edson. Thu . "Retinoblastoma-comparative analysis of external radiotherapy techniques, including an IMRT technique". United States. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2006.09.057.
@article{osti_20944748,
title = {Retinoblastoma-comparative analysis of external radiotherapy techniques, including an IMRT technique},
author = {Reisner, Marcio Lemberg and Viegas, Celia Maria Pais and Grazziotin, Rachele Zanchet and Santos Batista, Delano Valdivino and Carneiro, Tulio Meneses and Mendonca de Araujo, Carlos Manoel and Marchiori, Edson},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To compare the numerous external radiotherapy (RT) techniques for the treatment of retinoblastoma, as well as an intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) technique. The latter was elaborated to evaluate the potential dose reduction in the surrounding tissue, as well as the potential avoidance of subdosage in the ora serrata retinae. Methods and Materials: A 2-year-old patient with unilateral retinoblastoma underwent CT. With the aid of an ophthalmologist, the ocular structures were delimited, and 13 techniques described in published reports were reproduced on three-dimensional planning software and identified according to their authors. A technique with four noncoplanar fields using IMRT was also elaborated. These techniques were compared according to the dose to the ora serrata retinae, lens, orbit (volume that received a dose of {>=}20 Gy), vitreous, optic nerve, lacrimal gland (volume that received a dose of {>=}34 Gy), and cornea and according to their ease of reproducibility. Results: The techniques that attained the therapeutic dose to the ora serrata retinae were the IMRT technique and the techniques of Haye, Cassady, Cormack, and al-Beteri. The Cormack technique had the lowest volume that received a dose of {>=}20 Gy in the orbit, followed by the IMRT technique. The IMRT technique also achieved the lowest volume that received a dose of {>=}34 Gy (14%) in the lacrimal gland. The Abramson/McCormick/Blach, Cassady, Reese, and Schipper techniques were the easiest to reproduce and the Chin the most complex. Conclusion: Retinoblastoma treatment with IMRT has an advantage over the other techniques, because it allows for the greatest reduction of dose to the orbit and lacrimal gland, while maintaining the therapeutic dose to the ora serrata retinae and vitreous.},
doi = {10.1016/j.ijrobp.2006.09.057},
journal = {International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics},
number = 3,
volume = 67,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Thu Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Purpose: To compare dosimetric endpoints between three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) at our center with limited IMRT experience, and to perform an external audit of the IMRT plans. Methods and Materials: Ten patients, who received adjuvant chemoradiation for gastric cancer, formed the study cohort. For standardization, the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk were recontoured with the assistance of a study protocol radiologic atlas. The cohort was replanned with CMS Xio to generate coplanar 3D-CRT and IMRT plans. All 10 datasets, including volumes but without the plans (i.e., blinded), were transmitted to an experienced centermore » where IMRT plans were designed using Nomos Corvus (IMRT-C) and ADAC Pinnacle (IMRT-P). All IMRT plans were normalized to D95% receiving 45 Gy. Results: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy yielded higher PTV V45 (volume that receives {>=}45 Gy) (p < 0.001) than 3D-CRT. No difference in V20 was seen in the right (p = 0.9) and left (p 0.3) kidneys, but the liver mean dose (p < 0.001) was superior with IMRT. For the external audit, IMRT-C (p = 0.002) and IMRT-P (p < 0.001) achieved significantly lower left kidney V20 than IMRT, and IMRT-P (p < 0.001) achieved lower right kidney V20 than IMRT. The IMRT-C (p = 0.003) but not IMRT-P (p = 0.6) had lower liver mean doses than IMRT. Conclusions: At our institution with early IMRT experience, IMRT improved PTV dose coverage and liver doses but not kidney doses. An external audit of IMRT plans showed that an experienced center can yield superior IMRT plans.« less
  • A forward planned intensity modulated technique was initiated for intact breasts radiotherapy (FPIMRT). Forty-three patients were selected to compare dose distributions achieved by FPIMRT to dose distributions produced by conventional wedge techniques (CW). For the simulation process, the treatment field margins were clinically defined by a physician, and a set of fiducial reference markers was placed on the patient. A computed tomography (CT) scan was then performed and the images were transferred to a 3-dimensional (3D) treatment planning system (TPS). The breast tissue was then contoured to allow for a quantitative dose volume analysis. The treatment plan was initially generatedmore » with conventional tangential beam arrangements and open fields. Multiple multileaf collimator (MLC) shaped segments were created for each tangential beam in an effort to produce dose homogeneity throughout the breast. 6-MV photon beams were used for treatment unless acceptable dose homogeneity could not be achieved due to large breast size. In this case, the beam energies of selected segments were modified to 15-MV. Once the FPIMRT plan was created, additional plans were generated using the same beam geometry and 2 tangential open fields with CW techniques and 15 deg. wedges (15DW), 30 deg. wedges (30DW), 45 deg. wedges (45 DW), and 60 deg. wedges (60DW). The dose distributions generated by the CW plans were then compared to the FPIMRT plan. This process was repeated for each patient, and the patient group was divided into 3 categories based on breast volume (small, medium, and large). Both point dose relationships, which compared global hot spot (GHS) magnitude and location and dose volume relationships, which compared breast volume coverage of the 105% and 110% isodose lines (IDL) relative to the prescribed dose (PD), were explored. For the patient group in our study, FPIMRT produced the smallest average GHS and the most evenly distributed location of GHS for all breast size categories when compared to all CW techniques. FPIMRT also produced the smallest average breast volume receiving greater than 105% of the PD (V{sub a105}) for the small- and medium-size breast patients and the smallest average breast volume receiving greater than 110% of the PD (V{sub a110}) for all breast size categories when compared to all CW techniques.« less
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the dosimetric difference between intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using 3 or 5 beams and multistatic field technique (MSF) in radiotherapy of the left breast. We made comparative analysis of two kinds of radiotherapy that can achieve improved dose homogeneity. First is a MSF that uses both major and small irradiation fields at the same time. The other is IMRT using 3 or 5 beams with an inverse planning system using multiple static multileaf collimators. We made treatment plans for 16 early left breast cancer patients who were randomly selected and had undergonemore » breast conserving surgery and radiotherapy, and analyzed them in the dosimetric aspect. For the mean values of V{sub 95} and dose homogeneity index, no statistically significant difference was observed among the three therapies. Extreme hot spots receiving >110% of prescribed dose were not found in any of the three methods. Using Tukey's test, IMRT showed a significantly larger increase in exposure dose to the ipsilateral lung and the heart than MSF in the low-dose area, but in the high-dose area, MSF showed a slight increase. To improve dose homogeneity, the application of MSF, which can be easily planned and applied more widely, is considered optimal as an alternative to IMRT for radiotherapy of early left breast cancer.« less
  • Purpose: Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignancy in the early childhood. Patients treated with external beam radiotherapy respond very well to the treatment. However, owing to the genotype of children suffering hereditary retinoblastoma, the risk of secondary radio-induced malignancies is high. The University Hospital of Essen has successfully treated these patients on a daily basis during nearly 30 years using a dedicated “D”-shaped collimator. The use of this collimator that delivers a highly conformed small radiation field, gives very good results in the control of the primary tumor as well as in preserving visual function, while it avoids themore » devastating side effects of deformation of midface bones. The purpose of the present paper is to propose a modified version of the “D”-shaped collimator that reduces even further the irradiation field with the scope to reduce as well the risk of radio-induced secondary malignancies. Concurrently, the new dedicated “D”-shaped collimator must be easier to build and at the same time produces dose distributions that only differ on the field size with respect to the dose distributions obtained by the current collimator in use. The scope of the former requirement is to facilitate the employment of the authors' irradiation technique both at the authors' and at other hospitals. The fulfillment of the latter allows the authors to continue using the clinical experience gained in more than 30 years. Methods: The Monte Carlo codePENELOPE was used to study the effect that the different structural elements of the dedicated “D”-shaped collimator have on the absorbed dose distribution. To perform this study, the radiation transport through a Varian Clinac 2100 C/D operating at 6 MV was simulated in order to tally phase-space files which were then used as radiation sources to simulate the considered collimators and the subsequent dose distributions. With the knowledge gained in that study, a new, simpler, “D”-shaped collimator is proposed. Results: The proposed collimator delivers a dose distribution which is 2.4 cm wide along the inferior-superior direction of the eyeball. This width is 0.3 cm narrower than that of the dose distribution obtained with the collimator currently in clinical use. The other relevant characteristics of the dose distribution obtained with the new collimator, namely, depth doses at clinically relevant positions, penumbrae width, and shape of the lateral profiles, are statistically compatible with the results obtained for the collimator currently in use. Conclusions: The smaller field size delivered by the proposed collimator still fully covers the planning target volume with at least 95% of the maximum dose at a depth of 2 cm and provides a safety margin of 0.2 cm, so ensuring an adequate treatment while reducing the irradiated volume.« less
  • Purpose: Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignancy in the early childhood. Patients treated with external beam radiotherapy respond very well to the treatment. However, owing to the genotype of children suffering hereditary retinoblastoma, the risk of secondary radio-induced malignancies is high. The University Hospital of Essen has successfully treated these patients on a daily basis during nearly 30 years using a dedicated “D”-shaped collimator. The use of this collimator that delivers a highly conformed small radiation field, gives very good results in the control of the primary tumor as well as in preserving visual function, while it avoids themore » devastating side effects of deformation of midface bones. The purpose of the present paper is to propose a modified version of the “D”-shaped collimator that reduces even further the irradiation field with the scope to reduce as well the risk of radio-induced secondary malignancies. Concurrently, the new dedicated “D”-shaped collimator must be easier to build and at the same time produces dose distributions that only differ on the field size with respect to the dose distributions obtained by the current collimator in use. The scope of the former requirement is to facilitate the employment of the authors' irradiation technique both at the authors' and at other hospitals. The fulfillment of the latter allows the authors to continue using the clinical experience gained in more than 30 years. Methods: The Monte Carlo codePENELOPE was used to study the effect that the different structural elements of the dedicated “D”-shaped collimator have on the absorbed dose distribution. To perform this study, the radiation transport through a Varian Clinac 2100 C/D operating at 6 MV was simulated in order to tally phase-space files which were then used as radiation sources to simulate the considered collimators and the subsequent dose distributions. With the knowledge gained in that study, a new, simpler, “D”-shaped collimator is proposed. Results: The proposed collimator delivers a dose distribution which is 2.4 cm wide along the inferior-superior direction of the eyeball. This width is 0.3 cm narrower than that of the dose distribution obtained with the collimator currently in clinical use. The other relevant characteristics of the dose distribution obtained with the new collimator, namely, depth doses at clinically relevant positions, penumbrae width, and shape of the lateral profiles, are statistically compatible with the results obtained for the collimator currently in use. Conclusions: The smaller field size delivered by the proposed collimator still fully covers the planning target volume with at least 95% of the maximum dose at a depth of 2 cm and provides a safety margin of 0.2 cm, so ensuring an adequate treatment while reducing the irradiated volume.« less