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Title: Fortuitous establishment of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in Jamaica on the citrus leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

Abstract

These data indicate that the population of A. citricola in Jamaica probably originated from the Australian (Thailand), rather than from the Taiwan, population. This is consistent with what is currently known about the origin of the established Ageniaspis population in Florida (Alvarez 2000). It is not known when, or how, A. citricola arrived in Jamaica, although the CLM was detected there in 1994. The fortuitous establishment of A. citricolaon the CLM in Jamaica is not the only such establishment of a natural enemy discovered during this 2004 survey of citrus. The parasitoid Lipolexis oregmae Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) was found attacking the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Aphididae) (Hoy et al., unpublished data), and the eulophid parasitoid Tamarixia radiata Waterston was found attacking the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The fact that 3 natural enemies of 3 invasive citrus pests were found in Jamaica, none of which were purposefully imported and released, suggests that pest-infested citrus trees were imported into Jamaica without going through appropriate quarantine procedures. Because each pest arrived at different times, the parasitoids probably arrived at different times, as well. This indicates that an analysis is needed to identify the critical control pointsmore » within those services in Jamaica that support border protection, and that procedures may require strengthening. (author)« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]
  1. Department of Entomology and Nematology, P.O. Box 110620, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0620 (United States)
  2. Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI), 2 Belmopan Close, UWI Mona Campus, Kingston 7 (Jamaica)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20942940
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Florida Entomologist; Journal Volume: 90; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); DOI: 10.1653/0015-4040(2007)90[271:FEOACH]2.0.CO;2; Refs, 1 tab
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; APHIDS; CITRUS; FLORIDA; HYMENOPTERA; JAMAICA; LEPIDOPTERA; PEST CONTROL; QUARANTINE; TAIWAN; TREES

Citation Formats

Hoy, M.A., Jeyaprakash, A., and Clarke-Harris, D.. Fortuitous establishment of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in Jamaica on the citrus leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1653/0015-4040(2007)90[271:FEOACH]2.0.CO;2; REFS, 1 TAB.
Hoy, M.A., Jeyaprakash, A., & Clarke-Harris, D.. Fortuitous establishment of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in Jamaica on the citrus leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). United States. doi:10.1653/0015-4040(2007)90[271:FEOACH]2.0.CO;2; REFS, 1 TAB.
Hoy, M.A., Jeyaprakash, A., and Clarke-Harris, D.. Thu . "Fortuitous establishment of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in Jamaica on the citrus leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)". United States. doi:10.1653/0015-4040(2007)90[271:FEOACH]2.0.CO;2; REFS, 1 TAB.
@article{osti_20942940,
title = {Fortuitous establishment of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in Jamaica on the citrus leafminer (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)},
author = {Hoy, M.A. and Jeyaprakash, A. and Clarke-Harris, D.},
abstractNote = {These data indicate that the population of A. citricola in Jamaica probably originated from the Australian (Thailand), rather than from the Taiwan, population. This is consistent with what is currently known about the origin of the established Ageniaspis population in Florida (Alvarez 2000). It is not known when, or how, A. citricola arrived in Jamaica, although the CLM was detected there in 1994. The fortuitous establishment of A. citricolaon the CLM in Jamaica is not the only such establishment of a natural enemy discovered during this 2004 survey of citrus. The parasitoid Lipolexis oregmae Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) was found attacking the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Aphididae) (Hoy et al., unpublished data), and the eulophid parasitoid Tamarixia radiata Waterston was found attacking the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The fact that 3 natural enemies of 3 invasive citrus pests were found in Jamaica, none of which were purposefully imported and released, suggests that pest-infested citrus trees were imported into Jamaica without going through appropriate quarantine procedures. Because each pest arrived at different times, the parasitoids probably arrived at different times, as well. This indicates that an analysis is needed to identify the critical control points within those services in Jamaica that support border protection, and that procedures may require strengthening. (author)},
doi = {10.1653/0015-4040(2007)90[271:FEOACH]2.0.CO;2; REFS, 1 TAB},
journal = {Florida Entomologist},
number = 1,
volume = 90,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Thu Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • The parasitoid Lipolexis oregmae Gahan (introduced as L. scutellaris Mackauer) was imported from Guam, evaluated in quarantine, mass reared, and released into citrus groves in Florida in a classical biological control program directed against the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy. Releases of 20,200, 12,100, and 1,260 adults of L. oregmae were made throughout Florida during 2000, 2001, and 2002, respectively. To determine if L. oregmae had successfully established, surveys were conducted throughout the state beginning in the summer of 2001 and continuing through the summer of 2003. Parasitism during 2001 and 2002 was evaluated by holding brown citrus aphidsmore » in the laboratory until parasitoid adults emerged. Lipolexis oregmae was found in 10 sites in 7 counties and 4 sites in 3 counties with parasitism rates ranging from 0.7 to 3.3% in 2001 and 2002, respectively. Laboratory tests indicated that high rates of mortality occurred if field-collected parasitized aphids were held in plastic bags, so a molecular assay was used that allowed immature L. oregmae to be detected within aphid hosts immediately after collection. The molecular assay was used in 2003 with the brown citrus aphids and with other aphid species collected from citrus, weeds, and vegetables near former release sites; immatures of L. oregmae were detected in black citrus aphids, cowpea aphids, spirea aphids, and melon aphids, as well as in the brown citrus aphid, in 4 of 8 counties sampled, with parasitism ranging from 2.0 to 12.9%, indicating that L. oregmae is established and widely distributed. Samples taken in Polk County during Oct 2005 indicated that L. oregmae has persisted. The ability of L. oregmae to parasitize other aphid species on citrus, and aphids on other host plants, enhances the ability of L. oregmae to persist when brown citrus aphid populations are low. (author) [Spanish] El parasitoide Lipolexis oregmae Gahan (introducido como L. scutellaris Mackauer) fue importado de Guam, evaluado en cuarentena, criado en masa y liberado en huertos de citricos en un programa de control biologico clasico dirigido contra el afido pardo de citricos, Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy. Se hicieron liberaciones de 20,200, 12,100, y 1,260 adultos de L. oregmae a traves de la Florida durante los anos de 2000, 2001, y 2002, respectivamente. Para determinar si L. oregmae ha logrado en establecer, se realizaron sondeos a traves del estado empezando en el verano del 2001 y continuando hasta el final del verano del 2003. El parasitismo durante 2001 y 2002 fue evaluado con el mantenimiento de individuos del afido pardo de los citricos en el laboratorio hasta que los adultos emergieron. Lipolexis oregmae fue encontrado en 10 sitios en 7 condados y con tasas de parasitismo en 4 sitios en 3 condados entre 0.7 a 3.3% en el 2001 y 2002, respectivamente. Las pruebas del laboratorio indicaron que las tasas altas de mortalidad fueron posibles si los afidos con parasitos recolectados en el campo fueron mantenidos en bolsas plasticas, entonces un ensayo molecular fue usado con lo que permitio la deteccion de inmaduros de L. oregmae dentro de los hospederos de afidos inmediatamente despues de la recoleccion. El ensayo molecular fue usado en el 2003 con individuos del afido pardo de los citricos y con otras especies de afidos recolectados sobre citricos, malezas y hortalizas cerca de los sitios donde los parasitoides fueron liberados anteriormente; inmaduros de L. oregmae fueron detectados en individuos del afido negro de los citricos, el afido del caupi, el afido spirea y el afido del melon, ademas del afido pardo de los citricos en 4 de los 8 condados muestreados, con la tasa del parasitismo entre 2.0 a12.9%, indicando que L. oregmae estaba estabecido y ampliamente distribuido. Las muestras tomadas en el Condado de Polk durante octobre del 2005 indicaron que L. oregmae ha persistido. La capacidad de L. oregmae para parasitar otras especies de afidos sobre citricos y otros afidos sobre otras plantas hospederas, incrementa la capacidad de L. oregmae para persistir cuando las poblaciones del afido pardo de los citricos estan bajas. (author)« less
  • Factors responsible for low recovery rates of radioactive Solenopsis invicta Buren following placement of /sup 32/P-labeled Heliothis zea (Boddie) eggs on cotton in field predation tests were investigated using laboratory colonies of the ants. S. invicta workers became radioactive while handling labeled eggs by rupturing the egg chorion or by picking up labeled substances present on the surface of eggs. Foragers that removed the eggs from the plants picked up significantly more of the label than did workers that were sampled from the colonies between 12 and 72 h after egg introduction. Percentage of workers that became labeled over timemore » was much lower with the solid live food than in other studies that used powdered food sources. Problems in finding labeled ants in the field may have been associated with low mean levels of /sup 32/P per ant, together with difficulty in locating and isolating labeled ants from the population. Results indicate that egg predation rates estimated from counts per minute per predator have high variability, and suggest fairly large errors in estimates of eggs consumed per ant. Use of recovery rates of labeled predators to improve estimation of predation rates is discussed.« less
  • The braconid wasp Glyptapanteles liparidis is one of the main parasitoids of the forest pest insect Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) and therefore a regulator of the pest population. The eggs of the endoparasitoid are deposited in early larval stages of the host. The parasitoid larvae develop in the haemolymph of the host and feed exclusively on the nutrients of the haemolymph. Applied metals at the No-observed-effect-concentration level for L. dispar did not affect G. liparidis directly. Instead the parasitoid development is probably influenced by the alteration of the trophic situations within the host due to its metal stress. This studymore » provides information on the metal concentration of the parasitoid larvae shortly before their eclosion from the host. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.« less
  • Following more than a decade of negotiations, the Canada-United States Agreement on Air Quality entered into force on March 13, 1991, with the signatures of then-Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and US President George Bush. Why was it so difficult for Canadian and US negotiators to reach agreement? The author argues that Canadian and US domestic politics were the primary impediments to resolving the US-Canada acid rain dispute. This article thus casts the dispute in terms of a pair of domestic environmental policy problems, whose timely and complementary solution, furthermore, required executive initiative as the handmaiden of ecological crisis. Heightenedmore » public concern about the threat of acidic air pollution in Canada prompted Mulroney's efforts to reduce acid rain. In the US, a likewise critical change in the public's perception of air quality as a national emergency created the mass support necessary for Bush's federal acid rain control initiative.« less
  • Hepatobiliary scintigraphy using /sup 99m/Tc labeled radiopharmaceuticals is employed primarily for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis and for demonstration of biliary tract potency. This produce may also provide diagnostic information in the identification of unusual or atypical hepatobiliary disorders; frequently, this occurs as an incidental result of the test. Researchers present five cases in which trauma, infection, or obstructive abnormalities were diagnosed fortuitously.