skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Thinning response of a white pine stand on a reclaimed surface mine in southwestern Virginia

Abstract

White pine (Pinus strobus L) is planted extensively following reclamation of surface-mined land in the eastern coalfields. Little information exists on the productive potential of forests growing on reclaimed mined land and the response of these forests to intermediate stand treatments such as thinning. A thinning study was established in a 17-year-old white pine stand growing on a reclaimed surface mine in Vise County in southwest Virginia. A random complete block design was used to evaluate the growth response 9 growing seasons after thinning, when the stand was 26 years old. Stand parameters were projected to age 30 using a stand table projection. Site index of the stand was found to be 105 ft of a base age of 50 years. Thinning increased the diameter growth of the residual trees to 0.3 in. year{sup -1} compared with 0.2 in. year{sup -1} for the unthinned treatment; however, at age 26, there was no difference in volume or value per acre, When projected to age 30, the unthinned treatment had a volume of 6,530 ft(3) ac{sup -1} but was only worth $$3,564 ac{sup -1}, whereas the thinned treatment was projected to have 6,654 ft{sup 3} ac{sup -1}, which was worth $$4,559 ac{sup -1} due to a larger percentage of the volume in saw timber size classes. These results indicate that commercial forestry is a viable alternative for reclamation of surface-mined lands and that stands growing on reclaimed mined land can respond well to intermediate stand treatments.

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Forestry
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20905928
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Northern Journal of Applied Forestry; Journal Volume: 24; Journal Issue: 1
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; PINES; LAND RECLAMATION; SURFACE MINING; REVEGETATION; PRODUCTIVITY; FORESTS; VIRGINIA; USA; PLANT GROWTH; FORESTRY; ECONOMICS

Citation Formats

Casselman, C.N., Fox, T.R., and Burger, J.A. Thinning response of a white pine stand on a reclaimed surface mine in southwestern Virginia. United States: N. p., 2007. Web.
Casselman, C.N., Fox, T.R., & Burger, J.A. Thinning response of a white pine stand on a reclaimed surface mine in southwestern Virginia. United States.
Casselman, C.N., Fox, T.R., and Burger, J.A. Thu . "Thinning response of a white pine stand on a reclaimed surface mine in southwestern Virginia". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_20905928,
title = {Thinning response of a white pine stand on a reclaimed surface mine in southwestern Virginia},
author = {Casselman, C.N. and Fox, T.R. and Burger, J.A.},
abstractNote = {White pine (Pinus strobus L) is planted extensively following reclamation of surface-mined land in the eastern coalfields. Little information exists on the productive potential of forests growing on reclaimed mined land and the response of these forests to intermediate stand treatments such as thinning. A thinning study was established in a 17-year-old white pine stand growing on a reclaimed surface mine in Vise County in southwest Virginia. A random complete block design was used to evaluate the growth response 9 growing seasons after thinning, when the stand was 26 years old. Stand parameters were projected to age 30 using a stand table projection. Site index of the stand was found to be 105 ft of a base age of 50 years. Thinning increased the diameter growth of the residual trees to 0.3 in. year{sup -1} compared with 0.2 in. year{sup -1} for the unthinned treatment; however, at age 26, there was no difference in volume or value per acre, When projected to age 30, the unthinned treatment had a volume of 6,530 ft(3) ac{sup -1} but was only worth $3,564 ac{sup -1}, whereas the thinned treatment was projected to have 6,654 ft{sup 3} ac{sup -1}, which was worth $4,559 ac{sup -1} due to a larger percentage of the volume in saw timber size classes. These results indicate that commercial forestry is a viable alternative for reclamation of surface-mined lands and that stands growing on reclaimed mined land can respond well to intermediate stand treatments.},
doi = {},
journal = {Northern Journal of Applied Forestry},
number = 1,
volume = 24,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Thu Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • The effects of an induced Pisolithus tinctorius infection and broadcast fertilization were studied on the survival and growth of loblolly (Pinus taeda), Virginia (Pinus virginiana), and shortleaf (Pinus echinata) pine outplanted on a reclaimed east Tennessee coal surface mine site. The study site had been previously regraded and hydroseeded with a mixture of ground cover species. After six years, the survival and growth of loblolly pine with P. tinctorius ectomycorrhizae were signficantly improved in comparison with control loblolly pine infected by other ectomycorrhizal symbionts. The response of the Virginia pine to the infection by P. tinctorius was negligible after fivemore » years. Fertilization at outplanting significantly reduced the survival of both loblolly and Virginia pine. Fertilization of the shortleaf pine at the start of the third growing season did not result in the drastic mortality exhibited by the loblolly pine, and to a lesser extent the Virginia pine, in response to fertilization at outplanting, but this treatment was still detrimental to the survival of the shortleaf pine after five years. There was a marginal improvement in the survival and growth of the shortleaf pine in response to the infection by P. tinctorius. The effect of fertilization on the growth of all three species was negligible, and the increase in mortality associated with this treatment appeared to be primarily the result of increased competition with the ground cover species. These results indicate that the magnitude of the response exhibited by pines on harsh sites to an ectomycorrhizal infection by P. tinctorius is species dependent. Also, broadcast fertilization is inefficient on surface-mined sites where a vegetative ground cover has been established. 11 refs., 3 tabs.« less
  • Plantings on northwestern New Mexico raw mine spoils from 1973, examined for establishment (1975) and survival (1979), showed 75% survival of fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt.), each plant occupying 2.32 m/sup 2/ (1.52 x 1.52 m). Alkali sacaton (Sporobolus airoides (Torr.) Torr.) cover was 4% and had a density of 0.05 plant per m/sup 2/.
  • Extension exerts controls on migration and trapping of petroleum in rift settings, such as the Great Basin. Extensional controls are critical to the accumulation of petroleum in Nevada, including in Pine and Railroad Valleys. In these fields, reservoir permeability increased due to extension-related fracturing. These fractured reservoirs and structural traps may be contained within upper plates to regional detachments. Just northeast of Nevada`s most productive oil fields, a regionally extensive detachment is exposed in the White Pine Range. This detachment, the Blackrock fault, is a presently low, angle normal fault which dips <30{degrees} along most of its surface trace. Themore » Blackrock fault is nonplanar and exhibits drastic changes in both orientation and geometry along its length. The amount of stratigraphic separation across the fault is also highly variable ranging from <30 to {approximately}3800 m. Upper plate structures to the Blackrock fault may influence oil fields in Railroad Valley. Rocks in the hanging wall of the Blackrock fault are more intensely faulted than rocks in the footwall. The upper plate faults strike north, northwest, east, and northeast. The {approximately}east-striking faults are youngest because they typically cut the other structures. These faults are closely spaced and largely interconnected which allows migration of hydrocarbons. Most of the hanging wall faults are high-angle normal faults which cut both Paleozoic and Oligocene rocks. In the Blackrock upper plate, Paleozoic, carbonate and minor siliciclastic rocks are unconformably overlain by Oligocene tuffs and tuffaceous sedimentary rocks of the Garret Ranch Group with interbedded rhyolites. Upper plate fracturing of the Paleozoic rocks and Garret Ranch Group is important because parts of both sections are producing reservoirs in Railroad Valley.« less
  • The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) addresses a wide range of environmental concerns. However, its impacts on forest stand development and productive potential have only recently been investigated. We surveyed the vegetation and forest productivity on 22 surface mine sites throughout the coal-bearing region of Indiana that were reclaimed to forest cover under the provisions of SMCRA 7-14 years prior to sampling. Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) and green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) were the most widely occurring tree species. Tall fescue and goldenrod were the most widely occurring nonarborescent species. Median site index (base age 50 formore » black oak) was 30 ft. Although satisfying forest cover stocking requirements for bond release, these reclaimed surface mines almost always displayed a level of productivity far below those of native forests typical of this region. Reclamation techniques differing from those used on these study sites are needed to restore forest productivity to surface-mined lands while still complying with SMCRA.« less
  • Total oxidants were determined at three rural sites in Virginia: Salt Pond Mt., Giles Co., 3100' in elevation, Rocky Knob Mt., Floyd Co., 3100' in elevation, Shenandoah Valley, Rockbridge Co. 1400' in elevation. Oxidants were monitored with Mast Meters, Model 724-2, from May through August 1975. Increases in oxidants were associated with winds from the NE and stationary high pressure systems. Decreases in oxidants were associated with passage of cold fronts from the NW, warm fronts from the south, and high winds from the SW. The mean hourly concentration of oxidants for the period was 83.7, 97.2, and 61.7 ..mu..g/m/supmore » 3/ for sites 1, 2, and 3 respectively. The National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), for photochemical oxidants, of 160 ..mu..g/m/sup 3//1 hr./yr. was exceeded for 9, 59, and 39 hours at sites 1, 2 and 3 respectively. On July 3 all sites recorded levels above the NAAQS with 4 and 9 hours recorded at sites 1 and 3 respectively. Site 2 recorded 43 consecutive hrs. above the NAAQS with 4 and 9 hours recorded at sites 1 and 3 respectively. Site 2 recorded 43 consecutive hours above the NAAQS beginning at 1 pm on July 2 and ending at 5 am on July 4. Three classes of 15 year-old eastern white pines at site 1 showed increases in severity index of needle injury from July 1 to July 10 of 105.59 to 197.83 for the sensitive, 2.27 to 32.92 for the intermediate, and 0.41 to 0.64 for the tolerant class.« less