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Title: Ex situ aqueous mineral carbonation

Abstract

The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) located in Albany, OR (formerly the Albany Research Center) has studied ex situ mineral carbonation as a potential option for carbon dioxide sequestration. Studies focused on the reaction of Ca-, Fe-, and Mg-silicate minerals with gaseous CO{sub 2} to form geologically stable, naturally occurring solid carbonate minerals. The research included resource evaluation, kinetic studies, process development, and economic evaluation. An initial cost estimate of about $69/ton of CO{sub 2} sequestered was improved with process improvements to about 54/ton. The scale of ex situ mineral carbonation operations, requiring about 55,000 tons of mineral to carbonate, the daily CO{sub 2} emissions from a 1-GW, coal-fired power plant, may make such operations impractical. 23 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. National Energy Technology Laboratory, Albany, OR (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20885852
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Science and Technology; Journal Volume: 41; Journal Issue: 7; Other Information: Steve.Gerdemann@netl.doe.gov
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; CARBONATES; MINERALIZATION; CARBON DIOXIDE; USA; SILICATE MINERALS; RESOURCE ASSESSMENT; KINETICS; ECONOMIC ANALYSIS; CARBON SEQUESTRATION; COAL; FOSSIL-FUEL POWER PLANTS; COST ESTIMATION; MAGNESIUM SILICATES; CALCIUM SILICATES; IRON SILICATES; ELECTRIC POWER; PRICES; BENCH-SCALE EXPERIMENTS

Citation Formats

Stephen J. Gerdemann, William K. O'Connor, David C. Dahlin, Larry R. Penner, and Hank Rush. Ex situ aqueous mineral carbonation. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1021/es0619253.
Stephen J. Gerdemann, William K. O'Connor, David C. Dahlin, Larry R. Penner, & Hank Rush. Ex situ aqueous mineral carbonation. United States. doi:10.1021/es0619253.
Stephen J. Gerdemann, William K. O'Connor, David C. Dahlin, Larry R. Penner, and Hank Rush. Sun . "Ex situ aqueous mineral carbonation". United States. doi:10.1021/es0619253.
@article{osti_20885852,
title = {Ex situ aqueous mineral carbonation},
author = {Stephen J. Gerdemann and William K. O'Connor and David C. Dahlin and Larry R. Penner and Hank Rush},
abstractNote = {The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) located in Albany, OR (formerly the Albany Research Center) has studied ex situ mineral carbonation as a potential option for carbon dioxide sequestration. Studies focused on the reaction of Ca-, Fe-, and Mg-silicate minerals with gaseous CO{sub 2} to form geologically stable, naturally occurring solid carbonate minerals. The research included resource evaluation, kinetic studies, process development, and economic evaluation. An initial cost estimate of about $69/ton of CO{sub 2} sequestered was improved with process improvements to about 54/ton. The scale of ex situ mineral carbonation operations, requiring about 55,000 tons of mineral to carbonate, the daily CO{sub 2} emissions from a 1-GW, coal-fired power plant, may make such operations impractical. 23 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.},
doi = {10.1021/es0619253},
journal = {Environmental Science and Technology},
number = 7,
volume = 41,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Apr 01 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Sun Apr 01 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) located in Albany, OR (formerly the Albany Research Center) has studied ex situ mineral carbonation as a potential option for carbon dioxide sequestration. Studies focused on the reaction of Ca-, Fe-, and Mg-silicate minerals with gaseous CO2 to form geologically stable, naturally occurring solid carbonate minerals. The research included resource evaluation, kinetic studies, process development, and economic evaluation. An initial cost estimate of ~$69/ton of CO2 sequestered was improved with process improvements to ~$54/ton. The scale of ex situ mineral carbonation operations, requiring ~55 000 tons of mineral to carbonate,more » the daily CO2 emissions from a 1-GW, coal-fired power plant, may make such operations impractical.« less
  • Carbonation of magnesium- and calcium-silicate minerals to form their respective carbonates is one method to sequester carbon dioxide. Process development studies have identified reactor design as a key component affecting both the capital and operating costs of ex-situ mineral sequestration. Results from mineral carbonation studies conducted in a batch autoclave were utilized to design and construct a unique continuous pipe reactor with 100% recycle (flow-loop reactor). Results from the flow-loop reactor are consistent with batch autoclave tests, and are being used to derive engineering data necessary to design a bench-scale continuous pipeline reactor.
  • Due to the scale and breadth of carbon dioxide emissions, and speculation regarding their impact on global climate, sequestration of some portion of these emissions has been under increased study. A practical approach to carbon sequestration will likely include several options, which will be driven largely by the energy demand and economics of operation. Aqueous mineral carbonation of calcium and magnesium silicate minerals has been studied as one potential method to sequester carbon dioxide. Although these carbonation reactions are all thermodynamically favored, they occur at geologic rates of reaction. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that these rates of reaction are acceleratedmore » with increasing temperature, pressure, and particle surface area. Mineral-specific activation methods were identified, however, each of these techniques incurs energy as well as economic costs. An overview of the mineral availability, pretreatment options and energy demands, and process economics is provided.« less
  • Aqueous mineral carbonation has been studied at the Albany Research Center as a potential option for CO2 sequestration. Studies have focused on the reaction of Ca-, Fe-, and Mg-silicate minerals with gaseous CO2 to form geologically stable, naturally occurring solid carbonate minerals. Process development has progressed in parallel with a process evaluation study, which was conducted for a mineral carbonation unit scaled to sequester 100% of the CO2 emissions from a 1.3 GW coal-fired power plant. The carbonation plant would require roughly 55 kt/day of mineral reactant to carbonate about 24 kt/day of CO2. The overall cost estimate was approximatelymore » $54(US)/ton CO2 sequestered. The power requirement determined for the mineral carbonation unit was about 352 MW, which represents 27% of the net power plant output. Improved mineral pretreatment and reactor design indicate that costs could be reduced by improvements to the reaction efficiency. However, because the material balance is dependent on the stoichiometry of the reaction, the chemistry of the silicate ore reactants, as well as the rection efficiency, the silicate ore demand cannot be reduced beyond a theoretical ratio of about 2:1, silicate ore to CO2. Based on these factors, mineral carbonation may be best suited as a niche option for sequestration, where CO2 point sources coincide with sources of the desired mineral reactants, and may also favor an in situ methodology. Laboratory studies of in situ carbonation have shown promise.« less
  • Abstract not provided.