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Title: Nitrogen and phosphorus in the Finnish energy system, 1900-2003

Abstract

In producing power, humans move the nutrients nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from their long-term geological and biological stocks and release or emit them in soil, water, and the atmosphere. In Finland, peat combustion is an important driver of N and P fluxes from the environment to human economy. The flows of N and P in the Finnish energy system were quantified with partial substance flow analysis, and the driving forces of emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) were analyzed using the ImPACT model. In the year 2000 in Finland, 140,000 tonnes of nitrogen entered the energy system, mainly in peat and hard coal. Combustion released an estimated 66,000 tonnes of N as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and nitrous oxides (N{sub 2}O) and another 74,000 tonnes as elemental N{sub 2}. Most of the emissions were borne in traffic. At the same time, 6,000 tonnes of P was estimated to enter the Finnish energy system, mostly in peat and wood. Ash was mainly used in earth construction and disposed in landfills; thus negligible levels of P were recycled back to nature. During the twentieth century, fuel-borne input of N increased 20-fold, and of P 8-fold. In 1900-1950, the increasing use of hard coalmore » slowly boosted N input, whereas wood fuels were the main carrier of P. Since 1970, the fluxes have been on the rise. NOx emissions leveled off in the 1980s, though, and then declined in conjunction with improvements in combustion technologies such as NOx removal (de-NOx) technologies in energy production and catalytic converters in cars.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Biology & Environmental Science
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20885789
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Industrial Ecology; Journal Volume: 11; Journal Issue: 1
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; FINLAND; PEAT; COMBUSTION; PHOSPHORUS; NITROGEN; EMISSION; NITROGEN OXIDES; COAL; VEHICLES; EXHAUST GASES; WOOD; ASHES; FLY ASH; HISTORICAL ASPECTS

Citation Formats

Saikku, L., Antikainen, R., and Kauppi, P.E. Nitrogen and phosphorus in the Finnish energy system, 1900-2003. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1162/jiec.2007.1116.
Saikku, L., Antikainen, R., & Kauppi, P.E. Nitrogen and phosphorus in the Finnish energy system, 1900-2003. United States. doi:10.1162/jiec.2007.1116.
Saikku, L., Antikainen, R., and Kauppi, P.E. Mon . "Nitrogen and phosphorus in the Finnish energy system, 1900-2003". United States. doi:10.1162/jiec.2007.1116.
@article{osti_20885789,
title = {Nitrogen and phosphorus in the Finnish energy system, 1900-2003},
author = {Saikku, L. and Antikainen, R. and Kauppi, P.E.},
abstractNote = {In producing power, humans move the nutrients nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from their long-term geological and biological stocks and release or emit them in soil, water, and the atmosphere. In Finland, peat combustion is an important driver of N and P fluxes from the environment to human economy. The flows of N and P in the Finnish energy system were quantified with partial substance flow analysis, and the driving forces of emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) were analyzed using the ImPACT model. In the year 2000 in Finland, 140,000 tonnes of nitrogen entered the energy system, mainly in peat and hard coal. Combustion released an estimated 66,000 tonnes of N as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and nitrous oxides (N{sub 2}O) and another 74,000 tonnes as elemental N{sub 2}. Most of the emissions were borne in traffic. At the same time, 6,000 tonnes of P was estimated to enter the Finnish energy system, mostly in peat and wood. Ash was mainly used in earth construction and disposed in landfills; thus negligible levels of P were recycled back to nature. During the twentieth century, fuel-borne input of N increased 20-fold, and of P 8-fold. In 1900-1950, the increasing use of hard coal slowly boosted N input, whereas wood fuels were the main carrier of P. Since 1970, the fluxes have been on the rise. NOx emissions leveled off in the 1980s, though, and then declined in conjunction with improvements in combustion technologies such as NOx removal (de-NOx) technologies in energy production and catalytic converters in cars.},
doi = {10.1162/jiec.2007.1116},
journal = {Journal of Industrial Ecology},
number = 1,
volume = 11,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}