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Title: Hydrogen passivation of nitrogen in GaNAs and GaNP alloys: How many H atoms are required for each N atom?

Abstract

Secondary ion mass spectrometry and photoluminescence are employed to evaluate the origin and efficiency of hydrogen passivation of nitrogen in GaNAs and GaNP. The hydrogen profiles are found to closely follow the N distributions, providing unambiguous evidence for their preferential binding as the dominant mechanism for neutralization of N-induced modifications in the electronic structure of the materials. Though the exact number of H atoms involved in passivation may depend on the conditions of the H treatment and the host matrixes, it is generally found that more than three H atoms are required to bind to a N atom to achieve full passivation for both alloys.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [3]
  1. Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoeping University, S-58183 Linkoeping (Sweden)
  2. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
  3. (United States)
  4. (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20883265
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 90; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2425006; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE; ENERGY GAP; EPITAXY; GALLIUM ALLOYS; GALLIUM ARSENIDES; GALLIUM NITRIDES; GALLIUM PHOSPHIDES; HYDROGEN; ION MICROPROBE ANALYSIS; LAYERS; MASS SPECTROSCOPY; NITROGEN; PASSIVATION; PHOTOLUMINESCENCE; QUANTUM WELLS; SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS

Citation Formats

Buyanova, I. A., Chen, W. M., Izadifard, M., Pearton, S. J., Bihler, C., Brandt, M. S., Hong, Y. G., Tu, C. W., Department of Physics, Shahrood University of Technology, 36155 Shahrood, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching, and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, La Jolla, California 92093-0407. Hydrogen passivation of nitrogen in GaNAs and GaNP alloys: How many H atoms are required for each N atom?. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2425006.
Buyanova, I. A., Chen, W. M., Izadifard, M., Pearton, S. J., Bihler, C., Brandt, M. S., Hong, Y. G., Tu, C. W., Department of Physics, Shahrood University of Technology, 36155 Shahrood, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching, & Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, La Jolla, California 92093-0407. Hydrogen passivation of nitrogen in GaNAs and GaNP alloys: How many H atoms are required for each N atom?. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2425006.
Buyanova, I. A., Chen, W. M., Izadifard, M., Pearton, S. J., Bihler, C., Brandt, M. S., Hong, Y. G., Tu, C. W., Department of Physics, Shahrood University of Technology, 36155 Shahrood, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching, and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, La Jolla, California 92093-0407. Mon . "Hydrogen passivation of nitrogen in GaNAs and GaNP alloys: How many H atoms are required for each N atom?". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2425006.
@article{osti_20883265,
title = {Hydrogen passivation of nitrogen in GaNAs and GaNP alloys: How many H atoms are required for each N atom?},
author = {Buyanova, I. A. and Chen, W. M. and Izadifard, M. and Pearton, S. J. and Bihler, C. and Brandt, M. S. and Hong, Y. G. and Tu, C. W. and Department of Physics, Shahrood University of Technology, 36155 Shahrood and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 and Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, La Jolla, California 92093-0407},
abstractNote = {Secondary ion mass spectrometry and photoluminescence are employed to evaluate the origin and efficiency of hydrogen passivation of nitrogen in GaNAs and GaNP. The hydrogen profiles are found to closely follow the N distributions, providing unambiguous evidence for their preferential binding as the dominant mechanism for neutralization of N-induced modifications in the electronic structure of the materials. Though the exact number of H atoms involved in passivation may depend on the conditions of the H treatment and the host matrixes, it is generally found that more than three H atoms are required to bind to a N atom to achieve full passivation for both alloys.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2425006},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 2,
volume = 90,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 08 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 08 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Photoluminescence and optically detected magnetic resonance techniques are utilized to study defect properties of GaNP and GaNAs alloys subjected to post-growth hydrogenation by low-energy sub-threshold ion beam irradiation. It is found that in GaNP H incorporation leads to activation of new defects, which has a Ga interstitial (Ga{sub i}) atom at its core and may also involve a H atom as a partner. The observed activation critically depends on the presence of N in the alloy, as it does not occur in GaP with a low level of N doping. In sharp contrast, in GaNAs hydrogen is found to efficientlymore » passivate Ga{sub i}-related defects present in the as-grown material. A possible mechanism responsible for the observed difference in the H behavior in GaNP and GaNAs is discussed.« less
  • Deep level traps in as-grown and annealed n-GaNAs layers (doped with Si) of various nitrogen concentrations (N=0.2%, 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.2%) were investigated by deep level transient spectroscopy. In addition, optical properties of GaNAs layers were studied by photoluminescence and contactless electroreflectance. The identification of N- and host-related traps has been performed on the basis of band gap diagram [Kudrawiec, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 082109 (2012)], which assumes that the activation energy of electron traps of the same microscopic nature decreases with the rise of nitrogen concentration in accordance with the N-related shift of the conduction band towards trap levels.more » The application of this diagram has allowed to investigate the evolution of donor traps in GaNAs upon annealing. In general, it was observed that the concentration of N- and host-related traps decreases after annealing and PL improves very significantly. However, it was also observed that some traps are generated due to annealing. It explains why the annealing conditions have to be carefully optimized for this material system.« less
  • The authors have succeeded in growing GaN1?xAsx alloys over a large composition range (0 < x < 0.8) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The enhanced incorporation of As was achieved by growing the films with high As{sub 2} flux at low (as low as 100 C) growth temperatures, which is much below the normal GaN growth temperature range. Using x-ray and transmission electron microscopy, they found that the GaNAs alloys with high As content x > 0.17 are amorphous. Optical absorption measurements together with x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy results reveal a continuous gradual decrease in band gap from -3.4more » to < 1 eV with increasing As content. The energy gap reaches its minimum of -0.8 eV at x - 0.8. The composition dependence of the band gap of the crystalline GaN{sub 1?x}As{sub x} alloys follows the prediction of the band anticrossing model (BAC). However, our measured band gap of amorphous GaN{sub 1?x}As{sub x} with 0.3 < x < 0.8 are larger than that predicted by BAC. The results seem to indicate that for this composition range the amorphous GaN{sub 1?x}As{sub x} alloys have short-range ordering that resembles random crystalline GaN{sub 1?x}As{sub x} alloys. They have demonstrated the possibility of the growth of amorphous GaN{sub 1?x}As{sub x} layers with variable As content on glass substrates« less
  • The principal elements of the {sup 113}Cd shielding tensor for a set of five- coordinate compounds having mixed donor atoms coordinating to the cadmium were determined via CP/MAS NMR experiments. The first complex, [HB-(3,5-Me{sub 2}pz){sub 3}]CdBH{sub 4} (where pz = pyrazolyl), has a CdN{sub 3}H{sub 2} inner coordination sphere. The isotropic chemical shift in the solid state is 355.1 ppm, and its chemical shift anisotropy (CSA, {Delta}{sigma}) is -596 ppm with an asymmetry parameter ({eta}) of 0.64. The second complex, [HB(3,5-Me{sub 2}pz){sub 3}]Cd[H{sub 2}B(pz){sub 2}], has five nitrogen donor atoms bonded to the cadmium. This N{sub 5} or N{sub 3}N{submore » 2} compound was the only material of this study to manifest dipolar splitting of the cadmium resonance from the quadrupolar {sup 14}N. The isotropic chemical shift, CSA, and the value of {eta} for this material were therefore determined at higher field where the dipolar splitting was less than the linewidth, yielding values of 226.6 ppm, -247 ppm, and 0.32, respectively. A second N{sub 5} material, [HB(3-Phpz){sub 3}]Cd[H{sub 2}B(3,5-Me{sub 2}-pz){sub 2}], was also investigated and has an isotropic shift of 190.2 ppm, a CSA of 254 ppm, and an {eta} of 0.86. Also studied was [HB(3-Phpz){sub 3}]Cd[(Bu{sup t}CO){sub 2}CH], which has an CdN{sub 3}O{sub 2} inner core. The isotropic chemical shift of this complex is 173.6 ppm, and the values of {Delta}{sigma} and {eta} were determined to be -258 ppm and 0.38, respectively. The final compound, [HB(3,5-Me{sub 2}pz){sub 3}]Cd[S{sub 2}CNEt{sub 2}], with N{sub 3}S{sub 2} donor atoms, has an isotropic shift of 275.8 ppm, an {eta} of 0.51, and a CSA of +375 ppm. Utilizing previous assignments, the most shielded tensor information is used to speculate on the coordination geometry of the CdN{sub 3}O{sub 2} inner core complex.« less