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Title: Premixed ignition behavior of alternative diesel fuel-relevant compounds in a motored engine experiment

Abstract

A motored engine study using premixed charges of fuel and air at a wide range of diesel-relevant equivalence ratios was performed to investigate autoignition differences among surrogates for conventional diesel fuel, gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel fuel, and biodiesel, as well as n-heptane. Experiments were performed by delivering a premixed charge of vaporized fuel and air and increasing the compression ratio in a stepwise manner to increase the extent of reaction while monitoring the exhaust composition via Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry and collecting condensable exhaust gas for subsequent gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Each fuel demonstrated a two-stage ignition process, with a low-temperature heat release (LTHR) event followed by the main combustion, or high-temperature heat release (HTHR). Among the three diesel-relevant fuels, the magnitude of LTHR was highest for GTL diesel, followed by methyl decanoate, and conventional diesel fuel last. FTIR analysis of the exhaust for n-heptane, the conventional diesel surrogate, and the GTL diesel surrogate revealed that LTHR produces high concentrations of aldehydes and CO while producing only negligible amounts of CO{sub 2}. Methyl decanoate differed from the other two-stage ignition fuels only in that there were significant amounts of CO{sub 2} produced during LTHR; this was the result ofmore » decarboxylation of the ester group, not the result of oxidation. GC/MS analysis of LTHR exhaust condensate for n-heptane revealed high concentrations of 2,5-heptanedione, a di-ketone that can be closely tied to species in existing autoignition models for n-heptane. GC/MS analysis of the LTHR condensate for conventional diesel fuel and GTL diesel fuel revealed a series of high molecular weight aldehydes and ketones, which were expected, as well as a series of organic acids, which are not commonly reported as products of combustion. The GC/MS analysis of the methyl decanoate exhaust condensate revealed that the aliphatic chain acts similarly to n-paraffins during LTHR, while the ester group remains intact. Thus, although the FTIR data revealed that decarboxylation occurs at significant levels for methyl decanoate, it was concluded that this occurs after the aliphatic chain has been largely consumed by other LTHR reactions. (author)« less

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. Pennsylvania State University, Fuel Science Program, 405 Academic Activities Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)
  2. Honda R and D Company, Ltd., Asaka-shi, Saitama 351-0024 (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20880643
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Combustion and Flame; Journal Volume: 149; Journal Issue: 1-2; Other Information: Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; 09 BIOMASS FUELS; 02 PETROLEUM; DIESEL FUELS; HEPTANE; BIOFUELS; EXHAUST GASES; COMBUSTION; CARBON DIOXIDE; AIR; AUTOIGNITION; DECANOIC ACID; ALKANES; ALDEHYDES; ESTERS; DECARBOXYLATION; KETONES; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0400-1000 K; DIESEL ENGINES; CONDENSATES; COMPRESSION RATIO; ORGANIC ACIDS; CARBON MONOXIDE

Citation Formats

Szybist, James P., Boehman, Andre L., Haworth, Daniel C., and Koga, Hibiki. Premixed ignition behavior of alternative diesel fuel-relevant compounds in a motored engine experiment. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1016/J.COMBUSTFLAME.2006.12.011.
Szybist, James P., Boehman, Andre L., Haworth, Daniel C., & Koga, Hibiki. Premixed ignition behavior of alternative diesel fuel-relevant compounds in a motored engine experiment. United States. doi:10.1016/J.COMBUSTFLAME.2006.12.011.
Szybist, James P., Boehman, Andre L., Haworth, Daniel C., and Koga, Hibiki. Sun . "Premixed ignition behavior of alternative diesel fuel-relevant compounds in a motored engine experiment". United States. doi:10.1016/J.COMBUSTFLAME.2006.12.011.
@article{osti_20880643,
title = {Premixed ignition behavior of alternative diesel fuel-relevant compounds in a motored engine experiment},
author = {Szybist, James P. and Boehman, Andre L. and Haworth, Daniel C. and Koga, Hibiki},
abstractNote = {A motored engine study using premixed charges of fuel and air at a wide range of diesel-relevant equivalence ratios was performed to investigate autoignition differences among surrogates for conventional diesel fuel, gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel fuel, and biodiesel, as well as n-heptane. Experiments were performed by delivering a premixed charge of vaporized fuel and air and increasing the compression ratio in a stepwise manner to increase the extent of reaction while monitoring the exhaust composition via Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry and collecting condensable exhaust gas for subsequent gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Each fuel demonstrated a two-stage ignition process, with a low-temperature heat release (LTHR) event followed by the main combustion, or high-temperature heat release (HTHR). Among the three diesel-relevant fuels, the magnitude of LTHR was highest for GTL diesel, followed by methyl decanoate, and conventional diesel fuel last. FTIR analysis of the exhaust for n-heptane, the conventional diesel surrogate, and the GTL diesel surrogate revealed that LTHR produces high concentrations of aldehydes and CO while producing only negligible amounts of CO{sub 2}. Methyl decanoate differed from the other two-stage ignition fuels only in that there were significant amounts of CO{sub 2} produced during LTHR; this was the result of decarboxylation of the ester group, not the result of oxidation. GC/MS analysis of LTHR exhaust condensate for n-heptane revealed high concentrations of 2,5-heptanedione, a di-ketone that can be closely tied to species in existing autoignition models for n-heptane. GC/MS analysis of the LTHR condensate for conventional diesel fuel and GTL diesel fuel revealed a series of high molecular weight aldehydes and ketones, which were expected, as well as a series of organic acids, which are not commonly reported as products of combustion. The GC/MS analysis of the methyl decanoate exhaust condensate revealed that the aliphatic chain acts similarly to n-paraffins during LTHR, while the ester group remains intact. Thus, although the FTIR data revealed that decarboxylation occurs at significant levels for methyl decanoate, it was concluded that this occurs after the aliphatic chain has been largely consumed by other LTHR reactions. (author)},
doi = {10.1016/J.COMBUSTFLAME.2006.12.011},
journal = {Combustion and Flame},
number = 1-2,
volume = 149,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Sun Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • An experimental study on the premixed ignition behavior of C{sub 9} fatty acid esters has been conducted in a motored CFR engine. For each test fuel, the engine compression ratio was gradually increased from the lowest point (4.43) to the point where significant high temperature heat release (HTHR) was observed. The engine exhaust was sampled and analyzed through GC-FID/TCD and GC-MS. Combustion analysis showed that the four C{sub 9} fatty acid esters tested in this study exhibited evidently different ignition behavior. The magnitude of low temperature heat release (LTHR) follows the order, ethyl nonanoate > methyl nonanoate >> methyl 2-nonenoatemore » > methyl 3-nonenoate. The lower oxidation reactivity for the unsaturated fatty acid esters in the low temperature regime can be explained by the reduced amount of six- or seven-membered transition state rings formed during the oxidation of the unsaturated esters due to the presence of a double bond in the aliphatic chain of the esters. The inhibition effect of the double bond on the low temperature oxidation reactivity of fatty acid esters becomes more pronounced as the double bond moves toward the central position of the aliphatic chain. GC-MS analysis of exhaust condensate collected under the engine conditions where only LTHR occurred showed that the alkyl chain of the saturated fatty acid esters participated in typical paraffin-like low temperature oxidation sequences. In contrast, for unsaturated fatty acid esters, the autoignition can undergo olefin ignition pathways. For all test compounds, the ester functional group remains largely intact during the early stage of oxidation. (author)« less
  • Gasoline compression ignition concepts with the majority of the fuel being introduced early in the cycle are known as partially premixed combustion (PPC). Previous research on single- and multi-cylinder engines has shown that PPC has the potential for high thermal efficiency with low NOx and soot emissions. A variety of fuel injection strategies has been proposed in the literature. These injection strategies aim to create a partially stratified charge to simultaneously reduce NOx and soot emissions while maintaining some level of control over the combustion process through the fuel delivery system. The impact of the direct injection strategy to createmore » a premixed charge of fuel and air has not previously been explored, and its impact on engine efficiency and emissions is not well understood. This paper explores the effect of sweeping the direct injected pilot timing from -91° to -324° ATDC, which is just after the exhaust valve closes for the engine used in this study. During the sweep, the pilot injection consistently contained 65% of the total fuel (based on command duration ratio), and the main injection timing was adjusted slightly to maintain combustion phasing near top dead center. A modern four cylinder, 1.9 L diesel engine with a variable geometry turbocharger, high pressure common rail injection system, wide included angle injectors, and variable swirl actuation was used in this study. The pistons were modified to an open bowl configuration suitable for highly premixed combustion modes. The stock diesel injection system was unmodified, and the gasoline fuel was doped with a lubricity additive to protect the high pressure fuel pump and the injectors. The study was conducted at a fixed speed/load condition of 2000 rpm and 4.0 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The pilot injection timing sweep was conducted at different intake manifold pressures, swirl levels, and fuel injection GTP-15-1067, Dempsey 2 pressures. The gasoline used in this study has relatively high fuel reactivity with a research octane number of 68. The results of this experimental campaign indicate that the highest brake thermal efficiency and lowest emissions are achieved simultaneously with the earliest pilot injection timings (i.e., during the intake stroke).« less
  • With the goal of providing a more detailed fundamental understanding of ignition processes in diesel engines, this study reports analysis of a direct numerical simulation (DNS) database. In the DNS, a pseudo turbulent mixing layer of dimethyl ether (DME) at 400 K and air at 900 K is simulated at a pressure of 40 atmospheres. At these conditions, DME exhibits a two-stage ignition and resides within the negative temperature coefficient (NTC) regime of ignition delay times, similar to diesel fuel. The analysis reveals a complex ignition process with several novel features. Autoignition occurs as a distributed, two-stage event. The high-temperaturemore » stage of ignition establishes edge flames that have a hybrid premixed/autoignition flame structure similar to that previously observed for lifted laminar flames at similar thermochemical conditions. In conclusion, a combustion mode analysis based on key radical species illustrates the multi-stage and multi-mode nature of the ignition process and highlights the substantial modelling challenge presented by diesel combustion.« less