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Title: Processes affecting oxygen isotope ratios of atmospheric and ecosystem sulfate in two contrasting forest catchments in Central Europe

Abstract

Sulfate aerosols are harmful as respirable particles. They also play a role as cloud condensation nuclei and have radiative effects on global climate. A combination of {delta}{sup 18}O-SO{sub 4} data with catchment sulfur mass balances was used to constrain processes affecting S cycling in the atmosphere and spruce forests of the Czech Republic. Extremely high S fluxes via spruce throughfall and runoff were measured at Jezeri (49 and 80 kg S ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}, respectively). The second catchment, Na Lizu, was 10 times less polluted. In both catchments, {delta}{sup 18}O-SO{sub 4} decreased in the following order: open-area precipitation {gt} throughfall {gt} runoff. The 180-SO{sub 4} values of throughfall exhibited a seasonal pattern at both sites, with maxima in summer and minima in winter. This seasonal pattern paralleled {delta}{sup 18}O-H{sub 2}O values, which were offset by -18{per_thousand}. Sulfate in throughfall was predominantly formed by heterogeneous (aqueous) oxidation of SO{sub 2}. Wet-deposited sulfate in an open area did not show systematic {delta}{sup 18}O-SO{sub 4} trends, suggesting formation by homogeneous (gaseous) oxidation and/or transport from large distances. The percentage of incoming S that is organically cycled in soil was similar under the high and the low pollution. High-temperature {sup 18}O-rich sulfate wasmore » not detected, which contrasts with North American industrial sites. 29 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Czech Geological Survey, Prague (Czech Republic). Department of Geochemistry
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20862365
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Science and Technology; Journal Volume: 41; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: novak@cgu.cz
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; AEROSOLS; SULFATES; EUROPE; CZECH REPUBLIC; FORESTS; SPRUCES; AIR POLLUTION MONITORING; SEASONAL VARIATIONS; ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSPORT; SULFUR DIOXIDE; AIR POLLUTION; DEPOSITION; OXYGEN 18; ISOTOPE RATIO; CLIMATIC CHANGE; SULFUR CYCLE; ATMOSPHERIC PRECIPITATIONS; OXIDATION; MASS TRANSFER

Citation Formats

Martin Novak, Myron J. Mitchell, Iva Jackova, Frantisek Buzek, Jana Schweigstillova, Lucie Erbanova, Richard Prikryl, and Daniela Fottova. Processes affecting oxygen isotope ratios of atmospheric and ecosystem sulfate in two contrasting forest catchments in Central Europe. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1021/es0610028.
Martin Novak, Myron J. Mitchell, Iva Jackova, Frantisek Buzek, Jana Schweigstillova, Lucie Erbanova, Richard Prikryl, & Daniela Fottova. Processes affecting oxygen isotope ratios of atmospheric and ecosystem sulfate in two contrasting forest catchments in Central Europe. United States. doi:10.1021/es0610028.
Martin Novak, Myron J. Mitchell, Iva Jackova, Frantisek Buzek, Jana Schweigstillova, Lucie Erbanova, Richard Prikryl, and Daniela Fottova. Thu . "Processes affecting oxygen isotope ratios of atmospheric and ecosystem sulfate in two contrasting forest catchments in Central Europe". United States. doi:10.1021/es0610028.
@article{osti_20862365,
title = {Processes affecting oxygen isotope ratios of atmospheric and ecosystem sulfate in two contrasting forest catchments in Central Europe},
author = {Martin Novak and Myron J. Mitchell and Iva Jackova and Frantisek Buzek and Jana Schweigstillova and Lucie Erbanova and Richard Prikryl and Daniela Fottova},
abstractNote = {Sulfate aerosols are harmful as respirable particles. They also play a role as cloud condensation nuclei and have radiative effects on global climate. A combination of {delta}{sup 18}O-SO{sub 4} data with catchment sulfur mass balances was used to constrain processes affecting S cycling in the atmosphere and spruce forests of the Czech Republic. Extremely high S fluxes via spruce throughfall and runoff were measured at Jezeri (49 and 80 kg S ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}, respectively). The second catchment, Na Lizu, was 10 times less polluted. In both catchments, {delta}{sup 18}O-SO{sub 4} decreased in the following order: open-area precipitation {gt} throughfall {gt} runoff. The 180-SO{sub 4} values of throughfall exhibited a seasonal pattern at both sites, with maxima in summer and minima in winter. This seasonal pattern paralleled {delta}{sup 18}O-H{sub 2}O values, which were offset by -18{per_thousand}. Sulfate in throughfall was predominantly formed by heterogeneous (aqueous) oxidation of SO{sub 2}. Wet-deposited sulfate in an open area did not show systematic {delta}{sup 18}O-SO{sub 4} trends, suggesting formation by homogeneous (gaseous) oxidation and/or transport from large distances. The percentage of incoming S that is organically cycled in soil was similar under the high and the low pollution. High-temperature {sup 18}O-rich sulfate was not detected, which contrasts with North American industrial sites. 29 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.},
doi = {10.1021/es0610028},
journal = {Environmental Science and Technology},
number = 3,
volume = 41,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Thu Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Time series are presented of radiocarbon and C-13 contents in atmospheric carbon dioxide over eastern Europe (southern Poland), covering the periods 1983-1994 and 2000-2004. The carbon isotope composition was measured in biweekly composite samples of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, collected about 20 m above the local ground level. The data for 2 observational sites are presented: I) city of Krakow (50{sup o} 04'N, 19{sup o} 55'E; 220 m asl; for 1983-1994 and 2000-2004); and ii) Kasprowy Wierch, Tatra Mountains (49{sup o} 14'N, 19{sup o} 56'E; 1989 m asl; for 2000-2004). The latter site is considered a regional reference station, relatively freemore » of anthropogenic influences. During the period 1983-1994, observations in the Krakow area revealed a gradual decrease of C-14 content with a broad minimum around 1991 and a small increase by about 10 parts per thousand in the subsequent years. {delta}C-13 also changes with time, showing a decreasing trend from approximately -9.6 parts per thousand in 1983, with a slope of -0.02 parts per thousand/yr. The observed trends for both isotopes coincide well with a substantial reduction of coal consumption in Poland and partial replacement of coal by natural gas, especially in urban regions. After 2000, the {delta}C-13 slightly increases, reaching a mean value of -10 parts per thousand in 2004, while {delta}C-14 is below the reference level by similar to 3.5 parts per thousand. Observations at Kasprowy Wierch (regional reference station) also reflect a diminishing input of fossil carbon into the regional atmosphere. The fossil component in atmospheric CO{sub 2}, calculated with the aid of C-14 data available for the 2 study periods, shows a reduction of anthropogenic input by a factor of 2, which is confirmed by annual statistics of coal consumption.« less
  • Testing complex land surface models has often proceeded by asking the question: does the model prediction agree with the observation? This approach has yet led to high-performance terrestrial models that meet the challenges of climate and ecological studies. Here we test the Community Land Model (CLM) by asking the question: does the model behave like an ecosystem? We pursue its answer by testing CLM in the ecosystem functional space (EFS) at the Missouri Ozark AmeriFlux (MOFLUX) forest site in the Central U.S., focusing on carbon and water flux responses to precipitation regimes and associated stresses. In the observed EFS, precipitationmore » regimes and associated water and heat stresses controlled seasonal and interannual variations of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO 2 and evapotranspiration in this deciduous forest ecosystem. Such controls were exerted more strongly by precipitation variability than by the total precipitation amount per se. A few simply constructed climate variability indices captured these controls, suggesting a high degree of potential predictability. While the interannual fluctuation in NEE was large, a net carbon sink was maintained even during an extreme drought year. Although CLM predicted seasonal and interanual variations in evapotranspiration reasonably well, its predictions of net carbon uptake were too small across the observed range of climate variability. Also, the model systematically underestimated the sensitivities of NEE and evapotranspiration to climate variability and overestimated the coupling strength between carbon and water fluxes. Its suspected that the modeled and observed trajectories of ecosystem fluxes did not overlap in the EFS and the model did not behave like the ecosystem it attempted to simulate. A definitive conclusion will require comprehensive parameter and structural sensitivity tests in a rigorous mathematical framework. We also suggest that future model improvements should focus on better representation and parameterization of process responses to environmental stresses and on more complete and robust representations of carbon-specific processes so that adequate responses to climate variability and a proper degree of coupling between carbon and water exchanges are captured.« less