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Title: Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in China by county

Abstract

Quantitative relationships among social, economic, and climate parameters, and energy consumption for Chinese provinces, provide data for regression models' estimated rates of energy consumption and emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by county. A nonlinear model was used for domestic coal combustion with total population and annual mean temperature as independent variables. Linear regression models were utilized for all other types of fuel consumption. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that emission factors, rather than the regression modeling, constitute the main source of uncertainty in prediction. Models were validated using available energy data of several northern and southern counties of China from the literature. The total PAHs produced by each county is approximately equivalent to the sum of the total emission from energy, coke, and aluminum production. 25 refs., 8 figs.

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. Peking University, Beijing (China). Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20862364
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Science and Technology; Journal Volume: 41; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: taos@urban.pku.edu.cn
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 02 PETROLEUM; 09 BIOMASS FUELS; CHINA; EMISSION; POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS; COKING PLANTS; MONTE CARLO METHOD; COAL; COMBUSTION; REGRESSION ANALYSIS; RESIDENTIAL SECTOR; POLLUTION SOURCES; ALUMINIUM; POWER GENERATION; ENERGY CONSUMPTION; CORRELATIONS; FOSSIL FUELS; BIOMASS; PARAMETRIC ANALYSIS; SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION; ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT; SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS; WOOD FUELS; STRAW; PETROLEUM; FORECASTING; FUEL CONSUMPTION; INDUSTRIAL PLANTS

Citation Formats

Yanxu Zhang, Shu Tao, Jun Cao, and Raymond M. Coveney III. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in China by county. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1021/es061545h.
Yanxu Zhang, Shu Tao, Jun Cao, & Raymond M. Coveney III. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in China by county. United States. doi:10.1021/es061545h.
Yanxu Zhang, Shu Tao, Jun Cao, and Raymond M. Coveney III. Thu . "Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in China by county". United States. doi:10.1021/es061545h.
@article{osti_20862364,
title = {Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in China by county},
author = {Yanxu Zhang and Shu Tao and Jun Cao and Raymond M. Coveney III},
abstractNote = {Quantitative relationships among social, economic, and climate parameters, and energy consumption for Chinese provinces, provide data for regression models' estimated rates of energy consumption and emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by county. A nonlinear model was used for domestic coal combustion with total population and annual mean temperature as independent variables. Linear regression models were utilized for all other types of fuel consumption. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that emission factors, rather than the regression modeling, constitute the main source of uncertainty in prediction. Models were validated using available energy data of several northern and southern counties of China from the literature. The total PAHs produced by each county is approximately equivalent to the sum of the total emission from energy, coke, and aluminum production. 25 refs., 8 figs.},
doi = {10.1021/es061545h},
journal = {Environmental Science and Technology},
number = 3,
volume = 41,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Thu Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Emission of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) priority pollutants from major sources in China were compiled. Geographical distribution and temporal change of the PAH emission, as well as emission profiles, are discussed. It was estimated that the total PAH emission in China was 25,300 tons in 2003. The emission profile featured a relatively higher portion of high molecular weight (HMW) species with carcinogenic potential due to large contributions of domestic coal and coking industry. Among various sources, biomass burning, domestic coal combustion, and the coking industry contributed 60%, 20%, and 16% ofmore » the total emission, respectively. Total emission, emission density, emission intensity, and emission per capita showed geographical variations. In general, the southeastern provinces were characterized by higher emission density, while those in western and northern China featured higher emission intensity and population-normalized emission. Although energy consumption in China went up continuously during the past two decades, annual emission of PAHs fluctuated depending on the amount of domestic coal consumption, coke production, and the efficiency of energy utilization. 47 refs., 6 figs.« less
  • A USEPA procedure, ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex Long-Term), was applied to model the spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from various sources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, and biomass into the atmosphere of Tianjin, China. Benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) were calculated for risk assessment. Model results were provisionally validated for concentrations and profiles based on the observed data at two monitoring stations. The dominant emission sources in the area were domestic coal combustion, coke production, and biomass burning. Mainly because of the difference in the emission heights, the contributions of various sources to the average concentrations at receptorsmore » differ from proportions emitted. The shares of domestic coal increased from {approximately} 43% at the sources to 56% at the receptors, while the contributions of coking industry decreased from {approximately} 23% at the sources to 7% at the receptors. The spatial distributions of gaseous and particulate PAHs were similar, with higher concentrations occurring within urban districts because of domestic coal combustion. With relatively smaller contributions, the other minor sources had limited influences on the overall spatial distribution. The calculated average BaPeq value in air was 2.54 {+-} 2.87 ng/m{sup 3} on an annual basis. Although only 2.3% of the area in Tianjin exceeded the national standard of 10 ng/m{sup 3}, 41% of the entire population lives within this area. 37 refs., 9 figs.« less
  • A well-placed {sup 210}Pb-dated sediment core extracted from the distal mud in the central continental shelf of the East China Sea is used to reconstruct the high-resolution atmospheric depositional record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), believed to be transported mainly from China in the past 200 years due to the East Asian Monsoon. Total PAHs (TPAHs), based on the 16 USEPA priority PAHs, range from 27 in 1788 to 132 ng g{sup -1} in 2001. TPAH variation in the core reflects energy usage changes and follows closely the historical economic development in China. PAHs in the core are dominantly pyrogenicmore » in source, i.e., they are mainly from the incomplete combustion of coal and biomass burning. Several individual PAHs suggest that contribution from incomplete petroleum combustion has increased during recent years. Analysis of the 2 + 3 ring and the 5 + 6 ring PAHs and principle component analysis provide more evidence in the change in the energy structure, especially after 1978 when China embarked on the 'Reform and Open' Policy, indicating the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial economy of China. The historical profile of PAH distribution in the study area is obviously different from the United States and Europe due to their difference in energy structure and economic development stages. 39 refs., 5 figs.« less
  • Particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations were investigated at six sampling sites in the heating (February to March 2001) and nonheating (August to September 2001) periods in an industrial city in Northern China. Thirteen PAHs were measured. The total average concentrations (nanograms per meter cubed) of PAHs ranged between 78.93 and 214.63 during the heating period and from 31.48 to 102.26 in the nonheating period. Benzo(a)pyrene occurred at the highest level at a site near an industrial area but occurred at low concentrations far from the city center and industrial areas. In addition, ambient PAH profiles were studied. The fivemore » and six-ring species occurred in high fractions at the sampling site. By diagnostic ratio analysis, the major source at each sampling site in the city was coal combustion in the heating period; in the nonheating period, the major sources were relatively complex. Finally, the similarities among the six regions were assessed by principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and coefficient of divergence. These multivariate statistical analyses produced similar results, which agreed with the results from the diagnostic ratio analysis. 47 refs. 5 figs., 3 tabs.« less
  • The contamination and outflow of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Chinese Northern Plain, a region with a total area of 300 000 km{sup 2} and a high PAH emission density, were investigated. Polyurethane foam (PUF) and PM10 samples were collected at 46 sites located in urban, rural (towns or villages), and control (remote mountain) areas in the winter from November 2005 to February 2006. The observed concentrations of atmospheric PAHs were generally higher than those reported for developed countries and southern Chinese cities. It was found that there was no significant difference in air PAH concentrations between themore » urban and the rural areas while the PAH concentrations at the control sites were 1 order of magnitude lower than those at the other sites. The primary reason for the similarity in PAH concentrations between urban and rural areas was the fact that the predominant sources of biomass and domestic coal combustion were widely spread over the study area. The partition constants (K{sub PM10}) of PAHs were significantly correlated to the corresponding values of subcooled liquid-vapor pressure (pL{sup 0}). However, the regression slopes of log K{sub PM10} versus log pL{sup 0} were much steeper than -1, indicating adsorption dominated over absorption. Three distinct patterns of outflow from the study area were identified by forward trajectory and cluster analysis. 64 refs., 3 figs.« less