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Title: Metal levels in flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon) and great sculpin (Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus) from Adak Island, Alaska: Potential risk to predators and fishermen

Abstract

Increasingly there is a need to assess the contaminant levels in fish as indicators of the health and well-being of both the fish and their consumers, including humans. This paper examines the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium in the kidney, liver, and muscle of great sculpin and flathead sole from Adak Island in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Both species are consumed by the local Aleuts and others. There were significant differences in the levels of heavy metals as a function of tissue for both fish species; the liver of sculpin and sole generally had the highest levels of most metals, except for arsenic, lead, and selenium. Sole had significantly higher mean levels of arsenic in kidney (32,384 vs. 531 ppb, wet weight), liver (18,954 vs. 2532 ppb), and muscle (19,452 vs. 1343 ppb) than did sculpin. Sole also had higher mean levels of cadmium (230 vs. 63 ppb), lead (1236 vs. 48 ppb), mercury (150 vs. 107 ppb), and selenium (5215 vs. 1861 ppb) in kidney than did sculpin. There were significant correlations among weight and length measurements for both species. However, except for mercury, there were few significant correlations among tissue types for mostmore » metals. Only mercury and manganese levels were significantly correlated with size for sculpin (but not for sole). Levels of arsenic, lead, and mercury may pose a risk to predators that consume them, and arsenic and mercury may pose a risk to human consumers.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [3];  [4];  [5]
  1. Nelson Biological Laboratory, Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States) and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute and Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States). E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu
  2. Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute and Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)
  3. (United States)
  4. Nelson Biological Laboratory, Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States)
  5. Adak, Aleutian Islands, AK 99546 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20861685
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Research; Journal Volume: 103; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2006.02.005; PII: S0013-9351(06)00051-X; Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ALASKA; ALEUTIAN ISLANDS; ARSENIC; BIOLOGICAL INDICATORS; CADMIUM; CHROMIUM; HEALTH HAZARDS; HEAVY METALS; KIDNEYS; LEAD; LIVER; MANGANESE; MERCURY; SELENIUM

Citation Formats

Burger, Joanna, Gochfeld, Michael, Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854, Jeitner, Christian, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute and Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Piscataway, NJ 08854, Burke, Sean, and Stamm, Timothy. Metal levels in flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon) and great sculpin (Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus) from Adak Island, Alaska: Potential risk to predators and fishermen. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2006.02.005.
Burger, Joanna, Gochfeld, Michael, Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854, Jeitner, Christian, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute and Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Piscataway, NJ 08854, Burke, Sean, & Stamm, Timothy. Metal levels in flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon) and great sculpin (Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus) from Adak Island, Alaska: Potential risk to predators and fishermen. United States. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2006.02.005.
Burger, Joanna, Gochfeld, Michael, Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854, Jeitner, Christian, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute and Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Piscataway, NJ 08854, Burke, Sean, and Stamm, Timothy. Mon . "Metal levels in flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon) and great sculpin (Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus) from Adak Island, Alaska: Potential risk to predators and fishermen". United States. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2006.02.005.
@article{osti_20861685,
title = {Metal levels in flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon) and great sculpin (Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus) from Adak Island, Alaska: Potential risk to predators and fishermen},
author = {Burger, Joanna and Gochfeld, Michael and Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854 and Jeitner, Christian and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute and Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Piscataway, NJ 08854 and Burke, Sean and Stamm, Timothy},
abstractNote = {Increasingly there is a need to assess the contaminant levels in fish as indicators of the health and well-being of both the fish and their consumers, including humans. This paper examines the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium in the kidney, liver, and muscle of great sculpin and flathead sole from Adak Island in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Both species are consumed by the local Aleuts and others. There were significant differences in the levels of heavy metals as a function of tissue for both fish species; the liver of sculpin and sole generally had the highest levels of most metals, except for arsenic, lead, and selenium. Sole had significantly higher mean levels of arsenic in kidney (32,384 vs. 531 ppb, wet weight), liver (18,954 vs. 2532 ppb), and muscle (19,452 vs. 1343 ppb) than did sculpin. Sole also had higher mean levels of cadmium (230 vs. 63 ppb), lead (1236 vs. 48 ppb), mercury (150 vs. 107 ppb), and selenium (5215 vs. 1861 ppb) in kidney than did sculpin. There were significant correlations among weight and length measurements for both species. However, except for mercury, there were few significant correlations among tissue types for most metals. Only mercury and manganese levels were significantly correlated with size for sculpin (but not for sole). Levels of arsenic, lead, and mercury may pose a risk to predators that consume them, and arsenic and mercury may pose a risk to human consumers.},
doi = {10.1016/j.envres.2006.02.005},
journal = {Environmental Research},
number = 1,
volume = 103,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Adult longhorn sculpins were collected from Conception Bay, Newfoundland, and infected with trypanosomes via leeches. One group of these fish were exposed to water-accommodated Venezuelan crude oil, while the other served as controls. The results of the study suggests that water soluble fractions of Venezuelan crude oil have a minor effect on the hematology of sculpins in the concentration range 150-300 ppb, but that trypanosomes appear to potentiate the effect of oil on blood hemoglobin content of trypanosome infected fish. If this is found to be the case in active species of fish, the decrease in oxygen carrying capacity wouldmore » likely limit the aerobic capacity of fish. (JMT)« less
  • One of the most common pollutants in coastal marine areas is petroleum that is discharged continually from bilges and tankers. Fish which inhabit the littoral zone are usually exposed to a variety of pollutants, including petroleum, that originate from urban and industrial waste. The longhorn sculpin, Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus, is one of the fish species that inhabits littoral areas adjacent to wharves and fish-processing plants were it feeds on discarded offal. Discharged crude oil has been reported to contaminate and persist in sediment for long periods and is known to affect fish in a variety of ways. The present study wasmore » conducted to ascertain the effect of oil-contaminated sediment, following long-term exposure, on body weight, organs, tissues and parasitofauna of the sculpin and the potential use of its parasites as indicators of pollution.« less
  • The former Black Angel lead–zinc mine in Maarmorilik, West Greenland, is a historic example of how mining activity may result in a significant impact on the surrounding fjord system in terms of elevated concentrations of especially lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in seawater, sediments and surrounding biota. In order to shed light on the present contamination and possible effects in the fjord we initiated a range of studies including a pilot study on gill and liver morphology of common sculpins (Myoxocephalus scorpius) around Maarmorilik. Sculpins were caught and sampled at five different stations known to represent a gradient of Pbmore » concentrations. Fish livers from all specimens were analyzed for relevant elements in the area: Fe, Zn, As, Cu, Se, Cd, Pb, Ag, Hg, Co and Ni. Lead, As and Hg showed significant differences among the five stations. For 20% of the sculpins, Hg concentrations were in the range of lowest observed effect dose (LOED) of 0.1–0.5 μg/g ww for toxic threshold on reproduction and subclinical endpoints. Likewise LOEDs for tissue lesions, LOEDs for biochemistry, growth, survival and reproduction were exceeded for Cd (0.42–1.8 μg/g ww) and for As (11.6 μg/g ww) in 28% and 85% of the sculpins, respectively. Similar to this, the no observed effect dose (NOED) for biochemistry was exceeded for Pb (0.32 μg/g ww) and for growth, mortality and reproduction for Zn (60–68 μg/g ww) in 33% and 24% of the sculpins, respectively. For all sculpins, females were significantly larger than males and for five of the elements (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Se) females had higher concentrations. The chronic lesions observed in liver (mononuclear cell infiltrates, necrosis, vacuolar hepatocytes, portal fibrosis, bile duct hyperplasia, active melanomacrophage centers) and gills (fusion and edema of secondary lamellae, laminar telangiectasis, mononuclear cell infiltrates, blebs) were similar to those in the literature studies for both wild and laboratory exposed sculpins and other fish species carrying similar or higher Hg concentrations. Ignoring sex and size, specimens with hepatic cell infiltrates had the highest concentrations of most elements, a relation that was also found for gill telangiectasis and Hg (all p<0.05). When controlling for sex and size, the prevalence of vacuolar hepatocytes and endoparasites was significantly highest at the three most contaminated stations and similar differences were found for liver necrosis. We suggest that beside exposure to mining-related elements, other environmental factors, such as parasites, might be co-factors in the development of the observed liver and gill lesions. Therefore, sculpin liver and gill pathology are likely to be suitable health indicators when biomonitoring gradients of mining and other element related activity effects; while a larger study is required to fully evaluate the relationships. - Highlights: • Black Angel Pb–Zn mine in West Greenland has led to significant metal pollution. • Gill and liver morphology of common sculpins was evaluated as bioindicators. • Significant pathologies were found and were related to metal concentrations. • Sculpin pathology may be suitable health indicators for mining activity effects. • These should be enrolled in EIAs of raw material industrialization in the Arctic.« less
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