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Title: House dust as possible route of environmental exposure to cadmium and lead in the adult general population

Abstract

Contaminated soil particles and food are established routes of exposure. We investigated the relations between biomarkers of exposure to cadmium and lead, and the metal loading rates in house dust in the adult residents of an area with a soil cadmium concentration of >=3mg/kg (n=268) and a reference area (n=205). We determined the metal concentrations in house dust allowed to settle for 3 months in Petri dishes placed in the participants' bedrooms. The continuously distributed vegetable index was the first principal component derived from the metal concentrations in six different vegetables. The biomarkers of exposure (blood cadmium 9.2 vs. 6.2nmol/L; 24-h urinary cadmium 10.5 vs. 7.0nmol; blood lead 0.31 vs. 0.24{mu}mol/L), the loading rates of cadmium and lead in house dust (0.29 vs. 0.12 and 7.52 vs. 3.62ng/cm{sup 2}/92 days), and the vegetable indexes (0.31 vs. -0.44 and 0.13 vs. -0.29 standardized units) were significantly higher in the contaminated area. A two-fold increase in the metal loading rate in house dust was associated with increases (P<0.001) in blood cadmium (+2.3%), 24-h urinary cadmium (+3.0%), and blood lead (+2.0%), independent of the vegetable index and other covariates. The estimated effect sizes on the biomarkers of internal exposure were three times greatermore » for house dust than vegetables. In conclusion, in the adult population, house dust is potentially an important route of exposure to heavy metals in areas with contaminated soils, and should be incorporated in the assessment of health risks.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [4];  [1];  [5]
  1. Centrum voor Milieukunde, Limburgs Universitair Centrum, Diepenbeek (Belgium)
  2. Studiecooerdinatiecentrum, Departement Hart-en Vaatziekten, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium)
  3. Onderzoeksgroep voor Sociale en Economische Geografie, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium)
  4. Unite de Toxicologie Industrielle et de Medecine du Travail, Universite catholique de Louvain, Bruxelles (Belgium)
  5. Studiecooerdinatiecentrum, Departement Hart-en Vaatziekten, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium). E-mail: jan.staessen@med.kuleuven.be
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20861684
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Research; Journal Volume: 103; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2006.05.009; PII: S0013-9351(06)00128-9; Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; BIOLOGICAL MARKERS; BLOOD; CADMIUM; DUSTS; ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE; HEAVY METALS; INDOOR AIR POLLUTION; LEAD; SOILS; VEGETABLES

Citation Formats

Hogervorst, Janneke, Plusquin, Michelle, Vangronsveld, Jaco, Nawrot, Tim, Cuypers, Ann, Van Hecke, Etienne, Roels, Harry A., Carleer, Robert, and Staessen, Jan A. House dust as possible route of environmental exposure to cadmium and lead in the adult general population. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2006.05.009.
Hogervorst, Janneke, Plusquin, Michelle, Vangronsveld, Jaco, Nawrot, Tim, Cuypers, Ann, Van Hecke, Etienne, Roels, Harry A., Carleer, Robert, & Staessen, Jan A. House dust as possible route of environmental exposure to cadmium and lead in the adult general population. United States. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2006.05.009.
Hogervorst, Janneke, Plusquin, Michelle, Vangronsveld, Jaco, Nawrot, Tim, Cuypers, Ann, Van Hecke, Etienne, Roels, Harry A., Carleer, Robert, and Staessen, Jan A. Mon . "House dust as possible route of environmental exposure to cadmium and lead in the adult general population". United States. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2006.05.009.
@article{osti_20861684,
title = {House dust as possible route of environmental exposure to cadmium and lead in the adult general population},
author = {Hogervorst, Janneke and Plusquin, Michelle and Vangronsveld, Jaco and Nawrot, Tim and Cuypers, Ann and Van Hecke, Etienne and Roels, Harry A. and Carleer, Robert and Staessen, Jan A.},
abstractNote = {Contaminated soil particles and food are established routes of exposure. We investigated the relations between biomarkers of exposure to cadmium and lead, and the metal loading rates in house dust in the adult residents of an area with a soil cadmium concentration of >=3mg/kg (n=268) and a reference area (n=205). We determined the metal concentrations in house dust allowed to settle for 3 months in Petri dishes placed in the participants' bedrooms. The continuously distributed vegetable index was the first principal component derived from the metal concentrations in six different vegetables. The biomarkers of exposure (blood cadmium 9.2 vs. 6.2nmol/L; 24-h urinary cadmium 10.5 vs. 7.0nmol; blood lead 0.31 vs. 0.24{mu}mol/L), the loading rates of cadmium and lead in house dust (0.29 vs. 0.12 and 7.52 vs. 3.62ng/cm{sup 2}/92 days), and the vegetable indexes (0.31 vs. -0.44 and 0.13 vs. -0.29 standardized units) were significantly higher in the contaminated area. A two-fold increase in the metal loading rate in house dust was associated with increases (P<0.001) in blood cadmium (+2.3%), 24-h urinary cadmium (+3.0%), and blood lead (+2.0%), independent of the vegetable index and other covariates. The estimated effect sizes on the biomarkers of internal exposure were three times greater for house dust than vegetables. In conclusion, in the adult population, house dust is potentially an important route of exposure to heavy metals in areas with contaminated soils, and should be incorporated in the assessment of health risks.},
doi = {10.1016/j.envres.2006.05.009},
journal = {Environmental Research},
number = 1,
volume = 103,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Hettstedt, a city in eastern Germany with a long history of mining and smelting of nonferrous ores, has several industrial sources of heavy metals. The indoor exposure to metals of children (5 to 14 years old) in the Hettstedt area was assessed by measuring the levels of lead, cadmium, and arsenic contamination in sedimented house dust. Factors which influence the dust loading rate and the surface loading rates of these contaminants in house dust were investigated. The geometric mean of the dust loading rate was 8.9 mg/m[sup 2] day. The geometric means of surface loading rates were 1.14, 0.024, andmore » 0.023 [micro]g/m[sup 2] day for lead, cadmium, and arsenic, respectively. Factors that were significantly associated with surface loading rates included the city area of residence, automobile traffic near home, parent with occupational exposure to heavy metals, type of heating, housing characteristics, whether child's home is damp, number of persons living in the child's home,and parents' education. The most significant of these factors was the city area of residence, which reflects the distance from the metal sources; this factor accounted for about half of the variances explained by the regression models.« less
  • In Korea, there have been a number of efforts to measure levels of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population. This paper focuses on investigating the distribution of, extent of, and factors influencing the blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population, working from data obtained from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination. To that end, blood metal concentrations were analyzed from a total of 2369 participants who were 18 years of age and older. The geometric mean concentrations and their 95% confidence intervals of metals in blood were found to be lead, 1.72more » {mu}g/dL (95% CI, 1.68-1.76); cadmium, 1.02 {mu}g/L (95% CI, 1.00-1.05); and mercury, 3.80 {mu}g/L (95% CI, 3.66-3.93). Regression analyses indicate that the levels of metals in the blood are mainly influenced by gender, age, and the education levels of the participants. Current smoking status is also found to be a significant factor for increasing both lead and cadmium levels. Although our study, as the first nationwide survey of exposure to environmental pollutants in Korea, has value on its own, it should be expanded and extended in order to provide information on environmental exposure pathways and to watch for changes in the level of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population.« less
  • Lead and cadmium was determined in whole blood samples obtained from 473 nonoccupationally exposed adult persons in Sweden in 1980. Analyses were performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry equipped with an electrothermal atomization unit. Blood lead concentrations were shown to be significantly influenced by sex, smoking habits, and alcohol consumption. Current male smokers had a median blood lead level of 92 ..mu..g Pb/liter, as compared to 77 ..mu..g Pb/liter for nonsmokers. For females the corresponding values were 69 ..mu..g Pb/liter and 57 ..mu..g Pb/liter for current smokers and nonsmokers, respectively. Highly significant correlations were found between stated alcohol consumption and bloodmore » lead in most of the different sex and smoking categories. People living in apartments close to streets with heavy traffic in Stockholm had slightly, but not significantly, higher blood lead levels when compared to people living in areas of this city with low traffic density. Blood cadmium levels were very strongly affected by smoking habits. A significant correlation existed between the number of cigarettes consumed daily and blood cadmium concentration. The median blood cadmium level for nonsmoking males was 0.2 ..mu..g Cd/liter (less than or equal to0.2, detection limit) and for females 0.3 ..mu..g Cd/liter. About 90% of the current male and female smokers had cadmium concentrations in blood of 0.6 ..mu..g Cd/liter or more.« less
  • Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate in a general population of South Korean adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2010). The final analytical sample consisted of 5924 participants. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the MDRD Study equation as an indicator of glomerular function. Results: In multiple linear regression analysis of log2-transformed blood lead as a continuous variable on eGFR, after adjusting for covariates including cadmium andmore » mercury, the difference in eGFR levels associated with doubling of blood lead were -2.624 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -3.803 to -1.445). In multiple linear regression analysis using quartiles of blood lead as the independent variable, the difference in eGFR levels comparing participants in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of blood lead was -3.835 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -5.730 to -1.939). In a multiple linear regression analysis using blood cadmium and mercury, as continuous or categorical variables, as independent variables, neither metal was a significant predictor of eGFR. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI values for reduced eGFR calculated for log2-transformed blood metals and quartiles of the three metals showed similar trends after adjustment for covariates. Discussion: In this large, representative sample of South Korean adults, elevated blood lead level was consistently associated with lower eGFR levels and with the prevalence of reduced eGFR even in blood lead levels below 10 {mu}g/dL. In conclusion, elevated blood lead level was associated with lower eGFR in a Korean general population, supporting the role of lead as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease.« less