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Title: Detection of triclocarban and two co-contaminating chlorocarbanilides in US aquatic environments using isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

Abstract

The antimicrobial compound triclocarban (TCC; 3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide; CAS-bar 101-20-2) is a high-production-volume chemical, recently suggested to cause widespread contamination of US water resources. To test this hypothesis, we developed an isotope dilution liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for ultratrace analysis of TCC (0.9ng/L detection limit) and analyzed low-volume water samples (200mL) along with primary sludge samples from across the United States. All river water samples (100%) collected downstream of wastewater treatment plants had detectable levels of TCC, as compared to 56% of those taken upstream. Concentrations of TCC (mean+/-standard deviation) downstream of sewage treatment plants (84+/-110ng/L) were significantly higher (P<0.05; Wilcoxon rank sum test) than those of samples taken upstream (12+/-15ng/L). Compared to surface water, mean TCC concentrations found in dried, primary sludge obtained from municipal sewage treatment plants in five states were six orders of magnitude greater (19,300+/-7100{mu}g/kg). Several river samples contained a co-contaminant, identified based on its chromatographic retention time, molecular base ion, and MS/MS fragmentation behavior as 4,4'-dichlorocarbanilide (DCC; CAS-bar 1219-99-4). In addition to TCC and DCC, municipal sludge contained a second co-contaminant, 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorocarbanilide (TetraCC; CAS-bar 4300-43-0). Both newly detected compounds were present as impurities (0.2%{sub w/w} each) in technical grade TCC (99%). Application ofmore » the new method for chlorocarbanilide analysis yielded TCC occurrence data for 13 US states, confirmed the role of sewage treatment plants as environmental inputs of TCC, and identified DCC and TetraCC as previously unrecognized pollutants released into the environment alongside TCC.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University Center for Water and Health, Baltimore, MD 21205-2103 (United States)
  2. Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University Center for Water and Health, Baltimore, MD 21205-2103 (United States). E-mail: rhalden@jhsph.edu
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20861683
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Research; Journal Volume: 103; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2006.03.006; PII: S0013-9351(06)00061-2; Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; CALCIUM SULFIDES; DISINFECTANTS; ISOTOPE DILUTION; LIQUID COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY; MASS SPECTROSCOPY; POLLUTANTS; RIVERS; SENSITIVITY; SEWAGE SLUDGE; UREA; WASTE PROCESSING; WASTE WATER; WATER POLLUTION; WATER RESOURCES; WATER TREATMENT

Citation Formats

Sapkota, Amir, Heidler, Jochen, and Halden, Rolf U. Detection of triclocarban and two co-contaminating chlorocarbanilides in US aquatic environments using isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2006.03.006.
Sapkota, Amir, Heidler, Jochen, & Halden, Rolf U. Detection of triclocarban and two co-contaminating chlorocarbanilides in US aquatic environments using isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. United States. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2006.03.006.
Sapkota, Amir, Heidler, Jochen, and Halden, Rolf U. Mon . "Detection of triclocarban and two co-contaminating chlorocarbanilides in US aquatic environments using isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry". United States. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2006.03.006.
@article{osti_20861683,
title = {Detection of triclocarban and two co-contaminating chlorocarbanilides in US aquatic environments using isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry},
author = {Sapkota, Amir and Heidler, Jochen and Halden, Rolf U.},
abstractNote = {The antimicrobial compound triclocarban (TCC; 3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide; CAS-bar 101-20-2) is a high-production-volume chemical, recently suggested to cause widespread contamination of US water resources. To test this hypothesis, we developed an isotope dilution liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for ultratrace analysis of TCC (0.9ng/L detection limit) and analyzed low-volume water samples (200mL) along with primary sludge samples from across the United States. All river water samples (100%) collected downstream of wastewater treatment plants had detectable levels of TCC, as compared to 56% of those taken upstream. Concentrations of TCC (mean+/-standard deviation) downstream of sewage treatment plants (84+/-110ng/L) were significantly higher (P<0.05; Wilcoxon rank sum test) than those of samples taken upstream (12+/-15ng/L). Compared to surface water, mean TCC concentrations found in dried, primary sludge obtained from municipal sewage treatment plants in five states were six orders of magnitude greater (19,300+/-7100{mu}g/kg). Several river samples contained a co-contaminant, identified based on its chromatographic retention time, molecular base ion, and MS/MS fragmentation behavior as 4,4'-dichlorocarbanilide (DCC; CAS-bar 1219-99-4). In addition to TCC and DCC, municipal sludge contained a second co-contaminant, 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorocarbanilide (TetraCC; CAS-bar 4300-43-0). Both newly detected compounds were present as impurities (0.2%{sub w/w} each) in technical grade TCC (99%). Application of the new method for chlorocarbanilide analysis yielded TCC occurrence data for 13 US states, confirmed the role of sewage treatment plants as environmental inputs of TCC, and identified DCC and TetraCC as previously unrecognized pollutants released into the environment alongside TCC.},
doi = {10.1016/j.envres.2006.03.006},
journal = {Environmental Research},
number = 1,
volume = 103,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}