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Title: Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating of Isolated Attosecond Pulses in the Extreme Ultraviolet

Abstract

The pulse shape and phase of isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses with a duration of 860 asec have been determined simultaneously by using frequency-resolved optical gating based on two-photon above-threshold ionization with 28-eV photons in He. From the detailed characterization, we succeeded in shaping isolated XUV pulses on an attosecond time scale by precise dispersion control with Ar gas density or by changing the driving pulse width. These results offer a novel way to excite and observe an electron motion in atoms and molecules.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8581 (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20861543
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physical Review Letters; Journal Volume: 97; Journal Issue: 26; Other Information: DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.263901; (c) 2006 The American Physical Society; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS; ATOMS; ELECTRONS; EV RANGE 10-100; EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION; IONIZATION; MOLECULES; PHOTON BEAMS; PHOTONS; PULSE SHAPERS; PULSES

Citation Formats

Kosuge, A., Sekikawa, T., Zhou, X., Kanai, T., Adachi, S., and Watanabe, S.. Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating of Isolated Attosecond Pulses in the Extreme Ultraviolet. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVLETT.97.263901.
Kosuge, A., Sekikawa, T., Zhou, X., Kanai, T., Adachi, S., & Watanabe, S.. Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating of Isolated Attosecond Pulses in the Extreme Ultraviolet. United States. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVLETT.97.263901.
Kosuge, A., Sekikawa, T., Zhou, X., Kanai, T., Adachi, S., and Watanabe, S.. Sun . "Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating of Isolated Attosecond Pulses in the Extreme Ultraviolet". United States. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVLETT.97.263901.
@article{osti_20861543,
title = {Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating of Isolated Attosecond Pulses in the Extreme Ultraviolet},
author = {Kosuge, A. and Sekikawa, T. and Zhou, X. and Kanai, T. and Adachi, S. and Watanabe, S.},
abstractNote = {The pulse shape and phase of isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses with a duration of 860 asec have been determined simultaneously by using frequency-resolved optical gating based on two-photon above-threshold ionization with 28-eV photons in He. From the detailed characterization, we succeeded in shaping isolated XUV pulses on an attosecond time scale by precise dispersion control with Ar gas density or by changing the driving pulse width. These results offer a novel way to excite and observe an electron motion in atoms and molecules.},
doi = {10.1103/PHYSREVLETT.97.263901},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = 26,
volume = 97,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Dec 31 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Sun Dec 31 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • An attosecond ionization gating is achieved using a few-cycle laser pulse in combination with its second harmonic. With this gating, the generation of the electron wave packet (EWP) is coherently controlled, and an isolated EWP of about 270 as is generated. An isolated broadband attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulse with a bandwidth of about 75 eV can also be generated using this gating, which can be used for EWP measurements as efficiently as a 50-as pulse, allowing one to measure a wide range of ultrafast dynamics not normally accessible before.
  • We describe a method for the complete temporal characterization of attosecond extreme ultraviolet (xuv) fields. An electron wave packet is generated in the continuum by photoionizing atoms with the attosecond field, and a low-frequency dressing laser pulse is used as a phase gate for frequency-resolved-optical-gating-like measurements on this wave packet. This method is valid for xuv fields of an arbitrary temporal structure, e.g., trains of nonidentical attosecond pulses. It establishes a direct connection between the main attosecond characterization techniques demonstrated experimentally so far, and considerably extends their scope, thus providing a general perspective on attosecond metrology.
  • We summarize the problem of measuring an ultrashort laser pulse and describe in detail a technique that completely characterizes a pulse in time: frequency-resolved optical gating. Emphasis is placed on the choice of experimental beam geometry and the implementation of the iterative phase-retrieval algorithm that together yield an accurate measurement of the pulse time-dependent intensity and phase over a wide range of circumstances. We compare several commonly used beam geometries, displaying sample traces for each and showing where each is appropriate, and we give a detailed description of the pulse-retrieval algorithm for each of these cases. {copyright} {ital 1997 Americanmore » Institute of Physics. }« less
  • Frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) measurements were made to characterize pulses from a Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse amplified laser system. By characterizing both the pulse intensity and the phase, the FROG data provided the first direct observation to our knowledge of residual phase distortion in a chirped-pulse amplifier. The FROG technique was also used to measure the regenerative amplifier dispersion and to characterize an amplitude-shaped pulse. The data provide an experimental demonstration of the value of FROG for characterizing complex pulses, including tailored femtosecond pulses for quantum control.
  • Frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG), a technique for measuring ultrashort laser pulses, involves producing a spectrogram of the pulse and then retrieving the pulse intensity and phase with an iterative algorithm. We study how several types of noise---multiplicative, additive, and quantization---affect pulse retrieval. We define a convergence criterion and find that the algorithm converges to a reasonable pulse field, even in the presence of 10% noise. Specifically, with appropriate filtering, 1% rms retrieval error is achieved for 10% multiplicative noise, 10% additive noise, and as few as 8 bits of resolution. For additive and multiplicative noise the retrieval errors decrease roughlymore » as the square root of the amount of noise. In addition, the background induced in the wings of the pulse by additive noise is equal to the amount of additive noise on the trace. Thus the dynamic range of the measured intensity and phase is limited by a noise floor equal to the amount of additive noise on the trace. We also find that, for best results, a region of zero intensity should surround the nonzero region of the trace. Consequently, in the presence of additive noise, baseline subtraction is important. We also find that Fourier low-pass filtering improves pulse retrieval without introducing significant distortion, especially in high-noise cases. We show that the field errors in the temporal and the spectral domains are equal. Overall, the algorithm performs well because the measured trace contains {ital N}{sup 2} data points for a pulse that has only 2{ital N} degrees of freedom; FROG has built in redundancy. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital Optical} {ital Society} {ital of} {ital America}.« less