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Title: A comparison of substrate dynamics in human CYP2E1 and CYP2A6

Abstract

Considering the dynamic nature of CYPs, methods that reveal information about substrate and enzyme dynamics are necessary to generate predictive models. To compare substrate dynamics in CYP2E1 and CYP2A6, intramolecular isotope effect experiments were conducted, using deuterium labeled substrates: o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene, 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene, and 4,4'-dimethylbiphenyl. Competitive intermolecular experiments were also conducted using d{sub 0}- and d{sub 6}-labeled p-xylene. Both CYP2E1 and CYP2A6 displayed full isotope effect expression for o-xylene oxidation and almost complete suppression for dimethylbiphenyl. Interestingly (k {sub H}/k {sub D}){sub obs} for d{sub 3}-p-xylene oxidation ((k {sub H}/k {sub D}){sub obs} = 6.04 and (k {sub H}/k {sub D}){sub obs} = 5.53 for CYP2E1 and CYP2A6, respectively) was only slightly higher than (k {sub H}/k {sub D}){sub obs} for d{sub 3}-dimethylnaphthalene ((k {sub H}/k {sub D}){sub obs} = 5.50 and (k {sub H}/k {sub D}){sub obs} = 4.96, respectively). One explanation is that in some instances (k {sub H}/k {sub D}){sub obs} values are generated by the presence of two substrates-bound simultaneously to the CYP. Speculatively, if this explanation is valid, then intramolecular isotope effect experiments should be useful in the mechanistic investigation of P450 cooperativity.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [3]
  1. Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 357610, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States). E-mail: harrelsonj@pacificu.edu
  2. Amgen, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States)
  3. Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 357610, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20857971
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications; Journal Volume: 352; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.11.071; PII: S0006-291X(06)02523-X; Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGANISMS AND BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS; DEUTERIUM; ENZYMES; INHIBITION; ISOTOPE EFFECTS; OXIDATION; SUBSTRATES; XYLENES

Citation Formats

Harrelson, John P., Henne, Kirk R., Alonso, Darwin O.V., and Nelson, Sidney D. A comparison of substrate dynamics in human CYP2E1 and CYP2A6. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.11.071.
Harrelson, John P., Henne, Kirk R., Alonso, Darwin O.V., & Nelson, Sidney D. A comparison of substrate dynamics in human CYP2E1 and CYP2A6. United States. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.11.071.
Harrelson, John P., Henne, Kirk R., Alonso, Darwin O.V., and Nelson, Sidney D. Fri . "A comparison of substrate dynamics in human CYP2E1 and CYP2A6". United States. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.11.071.
@article{osti_20857971,
title = {A comparison of substrate dynamics in human CYP2E1 and CYP2A6},
author = {Harrelson, John P. and Henne, Kirk R. and Alonso, Darwin O.V. and Nelson, Sidney D.},
abstractNote = {Considering the dynamic nature of CYPs, methods that reveal information about substrate and enzyme dynamics are necessary to generate predictive models. To compare substrate dynamics in CYP2E1 and CYP2A6, intramolecular isotope effect experiments were conducted, using deuterium labeled substrates: o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene, 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene, and 4,4'-dimethylbiphenyl. Competitive intermolecular experiments were also conducted using d{sub 0}- and d{sub 6}-labeled p-xylene. Both CYP2E1 and CYP2A6 displayed full isotope effect expression for o-xylene oxidation and almost complete suppression for dimethylbiphenyl. Interestingly (k {sub H}/k {sub D}){sub obs} for d{sub 3}-p-xylene oxidation ((k {sub H}/k {sub D}){sub obs} = 6.04 and (k {sub H}/k {sub D}){sub obs} = 5.53 for CYP2E1 and CYP2A6, respectively) was only slightly higher than (k {sub H}/k {sub D}){sub obs} for d{sub 3}-dimethylnaphthalene ((k {sub H}/k {sub D}){sub obs} = 5.50 and (k {sub H}/k {sub D}){sub obs} = 4.96, respectively). One explanation is that in some instances (k {sub H}/k {sub D}){sub obs} values are generated by the presence of two substrates-bound simultaneously to the CYP. Speculatively, if this explanation is valid, then intramolecular isotope effect experiments should be useful in the mechanistic investigation of P450 cooperativity.},
doi = {10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.11.071},
journal = {Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications},
number = 4,
volume = 352,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jan 26 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Fri Jan 26 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Molecular dynamics has been used to study binding of substrate CO{sub 2} to the active site of human carbonic anhydrase II. Three potential CO{sub 2} binding sites have been located. The first is at the active-site hydrophobic pocket where CO{sub 2} is {approx}3.5{angstrom} from the zinc ion and interacts with His-94, His-119, Val-121, Val-143, Leu-198, Thr-199, the zinc ion, and the zinc-bound hydroxide ion. The second CO{sub 2} binding site is {approx}6 {angstrom} from the zinc ion, where CO{sub 2} interacts with His-64, His-94, Leu-198, Thr-200, Pro-201, Pro-202, and some active-site water molecules. The third CO{sub 2} binding site ismore » {approx}10 {angstrom} from the zinc ion, is largely solvated by water molecules, and interacts with His-64, Asn-67, and Gln-92. At these three CO{sub 2} binding sites, the CO{sub 2} molecule is highly localized and favors the linear binding orientation toward the zinc ion. This linear binding orientation of CO{sub 2} and its electrostatic interaction with the zinc ion direct diffusion of CO{sub 2} toward the zinc ion and facilitate the nucleophilic attack from O of the zinc-bound OH{sup {minus}} to C of CO{sub 2} in the productive hydrophobic binding site. Finally, the two CO{sub 2} binding sites outside the hydrophobic binding pocket, which may represent two intermediate states along the CO{sub 2} binding pathway, could play important roles as a CO{sub 2} relay.« less
  • The temperature dependence of liver microsomal CYP2E1 (cytochrome P450 2E1) activity was examined in selected genotypes of the viviparous fish Poeciliopsis. Activity of this enzyme, as a function of incubation temperature, was determined by measuring 6-OH-chlorzoxazone formation from chlorzoxazone, a specific CYP2E1 substrate. Chlorzoxazone-6-hydroxylase activity was examined among five species of Poeciliopsis, as well as among nine genotypes within a species, P. monacha. Among Poeciliopsis genotypes, P. monacha contained the greatest activity, 9.5 [+-] 1.5 U with a temperature optimum (T[sub O]) of 25 C. The lowest activity was in P. occidentalis, 0.65 [+-] 0.11 U, with a T[sub O]more » of 27 t 28 C; P. prolifica, P. fasciata, P. lucida, and P. viriosa had intermediate levels of activities, 1.1 to 5.5 U, and T[sub O] from 25 to 31 C. To determine if metabolic differences exist within species, enzyme activity was examined from nine genotypes of P. monacha by comparing expression among P. monacha-lucida hybrids. These hybrids were given identical paternal genomes of lucida but retained the original maternal Monacha genomes sampled from wild gene pools. The greatest activity was found in genotype T70-3 P. Cw, 3.6 [+-] 0.1 U, at a T[sub O] of 29 C, and the lowest was in genotype SV73-7s, 0.40 [+-] 0.12 U, at a T[sub O] of 27 C. The other naturally occurring genotypes, M65-24, M65-26, SV73-7v, as well as the laboratory-produced synthetic hybrids, Syn4 and Syn5, had intermediate activities, 0.73 [+-] 0.38 to 2.1 [+-] 0.69 U, and T[sub O] of 25 to 27 C. No hybrid had activity levels as high as the maternal parent, P. monacha, and only one had a T[sub O] as low as either parent. Apparently the genes involved in xenobiotic activity vary widely among the closely related species of Poeciliopsis but also within species, suggesting that these phenotypes can be acted upon by natural selection.« less
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  • Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) is a ubiquitous air pollutant, present in low concentrations in the urban air and in higher concentrations in the working environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of inhaled SO{sub 2} on the O-dealkylase of pentoxyresorufin (PROD) and p-nitrophenol hydroxylases (p-NP) activities and mRNA levels of CYP2B1/2 and CYP2E1 in the lung and liver of Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats were housed in exposure chambers and treated with 14.11 {+-}1.53, 28.36 {+-} 2.12, and 56.25 {+-} 4.28 mg /m{sup 3}SO{sub 2} for 6 h/day for 7 days, while control rats were exposed to filtered airmore » in the same condition. The mRNAs of CYP2B1/2 and -2E1 were analyzed in livers and lungs by using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results showed that the PROD activities and mRNA of CYP2B1/2 were decreased in livers and lungs of rats exposed to SO{sub 2}. The p-NP activities and mRNA of CYP2E1 were decreased in lungs but not in livers of rats exposed to SO{sub 2}. Total liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 (CYP) contents were diminished in SO{sub 2} -exposed rats. These results lead to two conclusions: (1) SO{sub 2} exposure can suppress CYP2B1/2 and CYP2E1 in lungs and CYP2B1/2 in livers of rats, thus modifying the liver and lung toxication/detoxication potential, and (2) the total liver microsomal CYP contents were diminished, although the activity and mRNA expression of CYP2E1 in rat livers were not affected by SO{sub 2} exposure.« less
  • The objective of the present study was to evaluate the magnitude of interindividual variability in the internal dose of toluene in children of various age groups, on the basis of subject-specific hepatic CYP2E1 content and physiology. The methodology involved the use of a previously validated physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, in which the intrinsic clearance for hepatic metabolism (CL{sub int}) was expressed in terms of the CYP2E1 content. The adult toluene PBPK model, with enzyme content-normalized CL{sub int}, facilitated the calculation of child-specific CL{sub int} based on knowledge of hepatic CYP2E1 protein levels. The child-specific physiological parameters, except liver volume,more » were computed with knowledge of age and body weight, whereas physicochemical parameters for toluene were kept age-invariant based on available data. The actual individual-specific liver volume (autopsy data) was also included in the model. The resulting model was used to simulate the blood concentration profiles in children exposed by inhalation, to 1 ppm toluene for 24 h. For this exposure scenario, the area under the venous blood concentration vs. time curve (AUC) ranged from 0.30 to 1.01 {mu}g/ml x h in neonates with low CYP2E1 concentration (<3.69 pmol/mg protein). The simulations indicated that neonates with higher levels of CYP2E1 (4.33 to 55.93 pmol/mg protein) as well as older children would have lower AUC (0.16 to 0.43 {mu}g/ml x h). The latter values were closer to those simulated for adults. Similar results were also obtained for 7 h exposure to 17 ppm toluene, a scenario previously evaluated in human volunteers. The interindividual variability factor for each subgroup of children and adults, calculated as the ratio of the 95th and 50th percentile values of AUC, was within a factor of 2. The 95th percentile value of the low metabolizing neonate group, however, was greater than the mean adult AUC by a factor of 3.9. This study demonstrates the feasibility of incorporating subject-specific data on hepatic CYP2E1 content and physiology within PBPK models for evaluating the age, interchild and population variability of internal dose for use in risk assessment of inhaled volatile organics.« less