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Title: Robust experiment design for estimating myocardial {beta} adrenergic receptor concentration using PET

Abstract

Myocardial {beta} adrenergic receptor ({beta}-AR) concentration can substantially decrease in congestive heart failure and significantly increase in chronic volume overload, such as in severe aortic valve regurgitation. Positron emission tomography (PET) with an appropriate ligand-receptor model can be used for noninvasive estimation of myocardial {beta}-AR concentration in vivo. An optimal design of the experiment protocol, however, is needed for sufficiently precise estimates of {beta}-AR concentration in a heterogeneous population. Standard methods of optimal design do not account for a heterogeneous population with a wide range of {beta}-AR concentrations and other physiological parameters and consequently are inadequate. To address this, we have developed a methodology to design a robust two-injection protocol that provides reliable estimates of myocardial {beta}-AR concentration in normal and pathologic states. A two-injection protocol of the high affinity {beta}-AR antagonist [{sup 18}F]-(S)-fluorocarazolol was designed based on a computer-generated (or synthetic) population incorporating a wide range of {beta}-AR concentrations. Timing and dosage of the ligand injections were optimally designed with minimax criterion to provide the least bad {beta}-AR estimates for the worst case in the synthetic population. This robust experiment design for PET was applied to experiments with pigs before and after {beta}-AR upregulation by chemical sympathectomy. Estimates ofmore » {beta}-AR concentration were found by minimizing the difference between the model-predicted and experimental PET data. With this robust protocol, estimates of {beta}-AR concentration showed high precision in both normal and pathologic states. The increase in {beta}-AR concentration after sympathectomy predicted noninvasively with PET is consistent with the increase shown by in vitro assays in pig myocardium. A robust experiment protocol was designed for PET that yields reliable estimates of {beta}-AR concentration in a population with normal and pathologic states. This methodology is applicable in general to optimal estimation of parameters in heterogeneous populations.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [2];  [2]
  1. Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States)
  2. (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20853905
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 34; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: DOI: 10.1118/1.2402585; (c) 2007 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; ACCURACY; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; BIOCHEMISTRY; BIOPHYSICS; DESIGN; FLUORINE 18; FLUORODEOXYGLUCOSE; HEART FAILURE; IN VITRO; IN VIVO; LIGANDS; MYOCARDIUM; POSITRON COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY; RECEPTORS; SURGERY; SWINE

Citation Formats

Salinas, Cristian, Muzic, Raymond F. Jr., Ernsberger, Paul, Saidel, Gerald M., Radiology, Oncology, Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, Nutrition, Pharmacology, and Neuroscience, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106. Robust experiment design for estimating myocardial {beta} adrenergic receptor concentration using PET. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1118/1.2402585.
Salinas, Cristian, Muzic, Raymond F. Jr., Ernsberger, Paul, Saidel, Gerald M., Radiology, Oncology, Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, Nutrition, Pharmacology, and Neuroscience, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, & Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106. Robust experiment design for estimating myocardial {beta} adrenergic receptor concentration using PET. United States. doi:10.1118/1.2402585.
Salinas, Cristian, Muzic, Raymond F. Jr., Ernsberger, Paul, Saidel, Gerald M., Radiology, Oncology, Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, Nutrition, Pharmacology, and Neuroscience, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106. Mon . "Robust experiment design for estimating myocardial {beta} adrenergic receptor concentration using PET". United States. doi:10.1118/1.2402585.
@article{osti_20853905,
title = {Robust experiment design for estimating myocardial {beta} adrenergic receptor concentration using PET},
author = {Salinas, Cristian and Muzic, Raymond F. Jr. and Ernsberger, Paul and Saidel, Gerald M. and Radiology, Oncology, Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 and Nutrition, Pharmacology, and Neuroscience, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106},
abstractNote = {Myocardial {beta} adrenergic receptor ({beta}-AR) concentration can substantially decrease in congestive heart failure and significantly increase in chronic volume overload, such as in severe aortic valve regurgitation. Positron emission tomography (PET) with an appropriate ligand-receptor model can be used for noninvasive estimation of myocardial {beta}-AR concentration in vivo. An optimal design of the experiment protocol, however, is needed for sufficiently precise estimates of {beta}-AR concentration in a heterogeneous population. Standard methods of optimal design do not account for a heterogeneous population with a wide range of {beta}-AR concentrations and other physiological parameters and consequently are inadequate. To address this, we have developed a methodology to design a robust two-injection protocol that provides reliable estimates of myocardial {beta}-AR concentration in normal and pathologic states. A two-injection protocol of the high affinity {beta}-AR antagonist [{sup 18}F]-(S)-fluorocarazolol was designed based on a computer-generated (or synthetic) population incorporating a wide range of {beta}-AR concentrations. Timing and dosage of the ligand injections were optimally designed with minimax criterion to provide the least bad {beta}-AR estimates for the worst case in the synthetic population. This robust experiment design for PET was applied to experiments with pigs before and after {beta}-AR upregulation by chemical sympathectomy. Estimates of {beta}-AR concentration were found by minimizing the difference between the model-predicted and experimental PET data. With this robust protocol, estimates of {beta}-AR concentration showed high precision in both normal and pathologic states. The increase in {beta}-AR concentration after sympathectomy predicted noninvasively with PET is consistent with the increase shown by in vitro assays in pig myocardium. A robust experiment protocol was designed for PET that yields reliable estimates of {beta}-AR concentration in a population with normal and pathologic states. This methodology is applicable in general to optimal estimation of parameters in heterogeneous populations.},
doi = {10.1118/1.2402585},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 1,
volume = 34,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • The mathematical models used to analyze positron emission tomography (PET) data obtained for receptor quantitation have many unknown parameters which must be estimated from the data. Obtaining unique and precise estimates of the model parameters from PET data is difficult as a result of the complex interdependence of the parameters. In this work the authors address the task of estimating the concentration of myocardial beta-adrenergic receptors using unlabeled and {sup 18}F-labeled S({single_bond})-fluorocarazolol as the receptor ligand. For a three-injection study they have optimized the ligand injection times and dosages using the D-optimal criterion for estimating receptor concentration. The authors foundmore » that in optimizing a three-injection experimental design, the dose of ligand in the third injection approaches zero so that the optimal three-injection design is actually a two-injection experiment. Using this optimal experiment, the authors demonstrate estimates of receptor concentration that are almost five times as precise as compared to an empirically designed three-injection experiment.« less
  • The {beta}{sub 1} receptor blockade reduces cardiac work and may thereby lower myocardial blood flow (MBF) at rest. The effect of {beta}{sub 1} receptor blockade on hyperemic MBF is unknown. To evaluate the effect of selective {beta}{sub 1} receptor blockade on MBF at rest and during dipyridamole induced hyperemia, 10 healthy volunteers (8 men, 2 women, mean age 24 {+-} 5 yr) were studied using {sup 13}N-ammonia PET (two-compartment model) under control conditions and again during metoprolol (50 mg orally 12 hr and 1 hr before the study). The resting rate pressure product (6628 {+-} 504 versus 5225 {+-} 807)more » and heart rate (63 {+-} 6-54 {plus_minus} 5 bpm) declined during metoprolol (p < 0.05). Similarly, heart rate and rate pressure product declined from the baseline dipyridamole study to dipyridamole plus metoprolol (p < 0.05). Resting MBF declined in proportion to cardiac work by approximately 20% from 0.61 {+-} 0.09-0.51 {+-} 0.10 ml/g/min (p < 0.05). In contrast, hyperemic MBF increased when metoprolol was added to dipyridamole (1.86 {plus_minus} 0.27 {+-} 0.45 ml/g/min; p<0.05). The decrease in resting MBF together with the increase in hyperemic MBF resulted in a significant increase in the myocardial flow reserve during metoprolol (3.14 {+-} 0.80-4.61 {+-} 0.68; p<0.01). The {beta}{sub 1} receptor blockade increases coronary vasodilatory capacity and myocardial flow reserve. However, the mechanisms accounting for this finding remain uncertain. 32 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.« less
  • Carazolol is a promising high-affinity beta-adrenergic receptor ligand for the noninvasive determination of beta receptor status using PET> Earlier investigations demonstrated specific receptor binding of carazolol in mice. These PET studies with S(-)-[2{double_prime}-{sup 11}C]carazolol in pigs were performed to explore the utility of the tracer for PET receptor studies. Tracer uptake in the heart and lung was measured by PET as a function of time. Receptors were blocked with propranolol and different doses of ICI 118,551 to estimate specific binding. Fluorine-18-1{double_prime}-Fluorocarazolol and the less active R-enantiomer of [{sup 11}C]-carazolol were also studied. Specific receptor binding was 75% of the totalmore » uptake in the heart, preventable and displaceable by propranolol. Dose-dependent competition showed that carazolol binds in vivo to {beta}{sub 1} and to {beta}{sub 2} subtypes. Uptake of the labeled R(=) enantiomer of carazolol was not receptor-specific. Carazolol labeled with {sup 11}C or {sup 18}F is a strong candidate for use in receptor estimation with PET. The in vivo observations were consistent with its known high affinity and slow receptor dissociation rate. Its high specific receptor uptake and low metabolism allow existing kinetic models to be applied for receptor measurements. The {sup 11}C label is convenient for repeated administrations, though {sup 13}F allowed the long observation periods necessary for measurement of the receptor dissociation rate. If needed, nonspecific uptake can be estimated without pharmacologic intervention by using the labeled R enantiomer. 32 refs., 11 figs.« less
  • The radioactive beta-adrenergic antagonist (/sup 3/H) dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binds to particulate preparations of human myometrium in a manner compatible with binding to the beta-adrenergic receptor. The binding of DHA is rapid (attaining equilibrium in 12 minutes), readily reversible (half time = 16 minutes), high affinity (K/sub D/ = 0.50 nM), low capacity (Bmax = 70 fmoles/mg of protein), and stereoselective ((-)-propranolol is 100 times as potent as (+) -propranolol in inhibiting DHA binding). Adrenergic agonists competed for DHA binding sites in a manner compatible with beta-adrenergic interactions and mirrored ..beta../sub 2/ pharmacologic potencies: isoproterenol > epinephrine >> norepinephrine. Studies inmore » which zinterol, a ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic agonist, competed for DHA binding sites in human myometrial particulate indicated that at least 87% of the beta-adrenergic receptors present are ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors. Binding of DHA to human myometrial beta-adrenergic receptors provides a tool which may be used in the examination of gonadal hormonal modification of adrenergic response in human uterus as well as in the analysis of beta-adrenergic agents as potentially useful tocolytic agents.« less
  • The authors have isolated and sequenced a cDNA encoding the human ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor. The deduced amino acid sequence (413 residues) is that of a protein containing seven clusters of hydrophobic amino acids suggestive of membrane-spanning domains. While the protein is 87% identical overall with the previously cloned hamster ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor, the most highly conserved regions are the putative transmembrane helices (95% identical) and cytoplasmic loops (93% identical), suggesting that these regions of the molecule harbor important functional domains. Several of the transmembrane helices also share lesser degrees of identity with comparable regions of select members of the opsinmore » family of visual pigments. They have localized the gene for the ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor to q31-q32 on chromosome 5. This is the same position recently determined for the gene encoding the receptor for platelet-derived growth factor and is adjacent to that for the FMS protooncogene, which encodes the receptor for the macrophage colony-stimulating factor.« less