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Title: Comparison between a built-in ''dual side'' chest imaging device and a standard 'single side' CR

Abstract

An integrated readout computed radiography system (Fuji XU-D1) incorporating dual-side imaging plates (ST-55BD) was analyzed in terms of modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) for standard beam qualities RQA 9 and RQA 5. NPS and DQE were assessed using a detector entrance air kerma consistent with clinical practice for chest radiography. Similar investigation was performed on a standard reader (Fuji FCR 5000) using single-side imaging plates (ST-VI). Negligible differences were found between the MTFs of the two imaging systems for RQA 9, whereas for RQA 5 the single-side system exhibited slightly superior MTF. Regarding noise response, the dual-side system turned out to be better performing for both beam qualities over a wide range of frequencies. For RQA 9, at 8 {mu}Gy, the DQE of the dual-side system was moderately higher over the whole frequency range, whereas for RQA 5, at 10 {mu}Gy, significant improvement was found at low- and midrange frequencies. As an example, at 1 cycle/mm, the following improvements in the DQE of the dual-side system were observed: +22% (RQA 9, at 8 {mu}Gy), +50% (RQA 9, at 30 {mu}Gy), and +45% (RQA 5, at 10 {mu}Gy)

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [2]
  1. Struttura Complessa Interaziendale di Fisica Sanitaria, Azienda Ospedale Universita di Padova, via Giustiniani 1, Padova, 35128 (Italy)
  2. (Italy)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20853902
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 34; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: DOI: 10.1118/1.2400619; (c) 2007 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; CALIBRATION STANDARDS; CHEST; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; EQUIPMENT; FREQUENCY RANGE; IMAGES; KERMA; MODULATION; NOISE; QUANTUM EFFICIENCY

Citation Formats

Riccardi, Lucia, Cristina Cauzzo, Maria, Fabbris, Roberto, Tonini, Eugenia, Righetto, Roberto, Istituto Oncologico Veneto - IRCCS, via Gattamelata 64, 35128, Padova, and Scuola di Specializzazione in Fisica Sanitaria, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 3/a, 35131, Padova. Comparison between a built-in ''dual side'' chest imaging device and a standard 'single side' CR. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1118/1.2400619.
Riccardi, Lucia, Cristina Cauzzo, Maria, Fabbris, Roberto, Tonini, Eugenia, Righetto, Roberto, Istituto Oncologico Veneto - IRCCS, via Gattamelata 64, 35128, Padova, & Scuola di Specializzazione in Fisica Sanitaria, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 3/a, 35131, Padova. Comparison between a built-in ''dual side'' chest imaging device and a standard 'single side' CR. United States. doi:10.1118/1.2400619.
Riccardi, Lucia, Cristina Cauzzo, Maria, Fabbris, Roberto, Tonini, Eugenia, Righetto, Roberto, Istituto Oncologico Veneto - IRCCS, via Gattamelata 64, 35128, Padova, and Scuola di Specializzazione in Fisica Sanitaria, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 3/a, 35131, Padova. Mon . "Comparison between a built-in ''dual side'' chest imaging device and a standard 'single side' CR". United States. doi:10.1118/1.2400619.
@article{osti_20853902,
title = {Comparison between a built-in ''dual side'' chest imaging device and a standard 'single side' CR},
author = {Riccardi, Lucia and Cristina Cauzzo, Maria and Fabbris, Roberto and Tonini, Eugenia and Righetto, Roberto and Istituto Oncologico Veneto - IRCCS, via Gattamelata 64, 35128, Padova and Scuola di Specializzazione in Fisica Sanitaria, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 3/a, 35131, Padova},
abstractNote = {An integrated readout computed radiography system (Fuji XU-D1) incorporating dual-side imaging plates (ST-55BD) was analyzed in terms of modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) for standard beam qualities RQA 9 and RQA 5. NPS and DQE were assessed using a detector entrance air kerma consistent with clinical practice for chest radiography. Similar investigation was performed on a standard reader (Fuji FCR 5000) using single-side imaging plates (ST-VI). Negligible differences were found between the MTFs of the two imaging systems for RQA 9, whereas for RQA 5 the single-side system exhibited slightly superior MTF. Regarding noise response, the dual-side system turned out to be better performing for both beam qualities over a wide range of frequencies. For RQA 9, at 8 {mu}Gy, the DQE of the dual-side system was moderately higher over the whole frequency range, whereas for RQA 5, at 10 {mu}Gy, significant improvement was found at low- and midrange frequencies. As an example, at 1 cycle/mm, the following improvements in the DQE of the dual-side system were observed: +22% (RQA 9, at 8 {mu}Gy), +50% (RQA 9, at 30 {mu}Gy), and +45% (RQA 5, at 10 {mu}Gy)},
doi = {10.1118/1.2400619},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 1,
volume = 34,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • An objective analysis of image quality parameters was performed for a computed radiography (CR) system using both standard single-side and prototype dual-side read plates. The pre-sampled modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) for the systems were determined at three different beam qualities representative of pediatric chest radiography, at an entrance detector air kerma of 5 {mu}Gy. The NPS and DQE measurements were realized under clinically relevant x-ray spectra for pediatric radiology, including x-ray scatter radiations. Compared to the standard single-side read system, the MTF for the dual-side read system is reduced, but thismore » is offset by a significant decrease in image noise, resulting in a marked increase in DQE (+40%) in the low spatial frequency range. Thus, for the same image quality, the new technology permits the CR system to be used at a reduced dose level.« less
  • The Fourier-space modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (nNPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of a computed radiography (CR) x-ray imaging device were measured. Two different storage phosphor screens were used in conjunction with a single CR reader (Fuji, Clearview, CS). One of the storage phosphor plates (ST-BD) had a clear backing material which allowed 'dual side read' of the latent image from both the 'front' and 'back' sides of the phosphor. The other phosphor plate had a light occluding backing material, limiting the readout to front side only (ST-VI). The standard RQA-5 beam quality was used. Themore » MTF was measured using a 1 mm thick tungsten edge device. Compared to the ST-55BD phosphor, the ST-VI phosphor was found to have modestly higher MTF at all spatial frequencies. The nNPS(f) and DQE(f) were measured for nominal incident exposure levels ranging from 0.1 to 10 mR. The dual side read phosphor demonstrated superior DQE, especially at low spatial frequencies. At the frequency 0.5 cycles/mm, the DQE values for the 1 mR exposure were 0.36 and 0.21 for the ST-55BD and ST-VI phosphor plates, respectively. The differences between the spatial-frequency dependent DQE of the two plates can be attributed to the increased signal collection efficiency of the dual side read plates and differences in storage phosphor structure noise.« less
  • Purpose: Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) has been shown to be useful for reducing the overlapping of abnormalities with anatomical structures at various depth levels along the posterior–anterior (PA) direction in chest radiography. However, DTS provides crude three-dimensional (3D) images that have poor resolution in the lateral view and can only be displayed with reasonable quality in the PA view. Furthermore, the spillover of high-contrast objects from off-fulcrum planes generates artifacts that may impede the diagnostic use of the DTS images. In this paper, the authors describe and demonstrate the use of a dual-view DTS technique to improve the accuracy of themore » reconstructed volume image data for more accurate rendition of the anatomy and slice images with improved resolution and reduced artifacts, thus allowing the 3D image data to be viewed in views other than the PA view. Methods: With the dual-view DTS technique, limited angle scans are performed and projection images are acquired in two orthogonal views: PA and lateral. The dual-view projection data are used together to reconstruct 3D images using the maximum likelihood expectation maximization iterative algorithm. In this study, projection images were simulated or experimentally acquired over 360° using the scanning geometry for cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). While all projections were used to reconstruct CBCT images, selected projections were extracted and used to reconstruct single- and dual-view DTS images for comparison with the CBCT images. For realistic demonstration and comparison, a digital chest phantom derived from clinical CT images was used for the simulation study. An anthropomorphic chest phantom was imaged for the experimental study. The resultant dual-view DTS images were visually compared with the single-view DTS images and CBCT images for the presence of image artifacts and accuracy of CT numbers and anatomy and quantitatively compared with root-mean-square-deviation (RMSD) values computed using the digital chest phantom or the CBCT images as the reference in the simulation and experimental study, respectively. High-contrast wires with vertical, oblique, and horizontal orientations in a PA view plane were also imaged to investigate the spatial resolutions and how the wire signals spread in the PA view and lateral view slice images. Results: Both the digital phantom images (simulated) and the anthropomorphic phantom images (experimentally generated) demonstrated that the dual-view DTS technique resulted in improved spatial resolution in the depth (PA) direction, more accurate representation of the anatomy, and significantly reduced artifacts. The RMSD values corroborate well with visual observations with substantially lower RMSD values measured for the dual-view DTS images as compared to those measured for the single-view DTS images. The imaging experiment with the high-contrast wires shows that while the vertical and oblique wires could be resolved in the lateral view in both single- and dual-view DTS images, the horizontal wire could only be resolved in the dual-view DTS images. This indicates that with single-view DTS, the wire signals spread liberally to off-fulcrum planes and generated wire shadow there. Conclusions: The authors have demonstrated both visually and quantitatively that the dual-view DTS technique can be used to achieve more accurate rendition of the anatomy and to obtain slice images with improved resolution and reduced artifacts as compared to the single-view DTS technique, thus allowing the 3D image data to be viewed in views other than the PA view. These advantages could make the dual-view DTS technique useful in situations where better separation of the objects-of-interest from the off-fulcrum structures or more accurate 3D rendition of the anatomy are required while a regular CT examination is undesirable due to radiation dose considerations.« less
  • Experimental and theoretical studies were conducted to determine optimal acquisition techniques for a prototype dual-energy (DE) chest imaging system. Technique factors investigated included the selection of added x-ray filtration, kVp pair, and the allocation of dose between low- and high-energy projections, with total dose equal to or less than that of a conventional chest radiograph. Optima were computed to maximize lung nodule detectability as characterized by the signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR) in DE chest images. Optimal beam filtration was determined by cascaded systems analysis of DE image SDNR for filter selections across the periodic table (Z{sub filter}=1-92), demonstrating the importance ofmore » differential filtration between low- and high-kVp projections and suggesting optimal high-kVp filters in the range Z{sub filter}=25-50. For example, added filtration of {approx}2.1 mm Cu, {approx}1.2 mm Zr, {approx}0.7 mm Mo, and {approx}0.6 mm Ag to the high-kVp beam provided optimal (and nearly equivalent) soft-tissue SDNR. Optimal kVp pair and dose allocation were investigated using a chest phantom presenting simulated lung nodules and ribs for thin, average, and thick body habitus. Low- and high-energy techniques ranged from 60-90 kVp and 120-150 kVp, respectively, with peak soft-tissue SDNR achieved at [60/120] kVp for all patient thicknesses and all levels of imaging dose. A strong dependence on the kVp of the low-energy projection was observed. Optimal allocation of dose between low- and high-energy projections was such that {approx}30% of the total dose was delivered by the low-kVp projection, exhibiting a fairly weak dependence on kVp pair and dose. The results have guided the implementation of a prototype DE imaging system for imaging trials in early-stage lung nodule detection and diagnosis.« less
  • Human observer performance tests were conducted to identify optimal imaging techniques in dual-energy (DE) imaging of the chest with respect to a variety of visualization tasks for soft and bony tissue. Specifically, the effect of kVp selection in low- and high-energy projection pairs was investigated. DE images of an anthropomorphic chest phantom formed the basis for observer studies, decomposed from low-energy and high-energy projections in the range 60-90 kVp and 120-150 kVp, respectively, with total dose for the DE image equivalent to that of a single chest radiograph. Five expert radiologists participated in observer preference tests to evaluate differences inmore » image quality among the DE images. For visualization of soft-tissue structures in the lung, the [60/130] kVp pair provided optimal image quality, whereas [60/140] kVp proved optimal for delineation of the descending aorta in the retrocardiac region. Such soft-tissue detectability tasks exhibited a strong dependence on the low-kVp selection (with 60 kVp providing maximum soft-tissue conspicuity) and a weaker dependence on the high-kVp selection (typically highest at 130-140 kVp). Qualitative examination of DE bone-only images suggests optimal bony visualization at a similar technique, viz., [60/140] kVp. Observer preference was largely consistent with quantitative analysis of contrast, noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio, with subtle differences likely related to the imaging task and spatial-frequency characteristics of the noise. Observer preference tests offered practical, semiquantitative identification of optimal, task-specific imaging techniques and will provide useful guidance toward clinical implementation of high-performance DE imaging systems.« less