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Title: Estrogenic effects of marijuana smoke condensate and cannabinoid compounds

Abstract

Chronic exposure to marijuana produces adverse effects on the endocrine and reproductive systems in humans; however, the experimental evidence for this presented thus far has not been without controversy. In this study, the estrogenic effect of marijuana smoke condensate (MSC) was evaluated using in vitro bioassays, viz., the cell proliferation assay, the reporter gene assay, and the ER competitive binding assay. The results of these assays were compared with those of three major cannabinoids, i.e., THC, CBD, and CBN. The estrogenic effect of MSC was further confirmed by the immature female rat uterotrophic assay. MSC stimulated the estrogenicity related to the ER-mediated pathway, while neither THC, CBD, nor CBN did. Moreover, treatment with 10 and 25 mg/kg MSC induced significant uterine response, and 10 mg/kg MSC resulted in an obvious change in the uterine epithelial cell appearance. MSC also enhanced the IGFBP-1 gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. To identify the constituents of MSC responsible for its estrogenicity, the MSC fractionated samples were examined using another cell proliferation assay, and the estrogenic active fraction was analyzed using GC-MS. In the organic acid fraction that showed the strongest estrogenic activity among the seven fractions of MSC, phenols were identified. Our resultsmore » suggest that marijuana abuse is considered an endocrine-disrupting factor. Furthermore, these results suggest that the phenolic compounds contained in MSC play a role in its estrogenic effect.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. National Institute of Scientific Investigation, 331-1 Shinwol-7-dong, Yangcheon-gu, Seoul 158-707 (Korea, Republic of)
  2. (Korea, Republic of)
  3. Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Cheoncheon-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)
  4. Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Cheoncheon-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of). E-mail: khchung@skku.edu
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20850381
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 214; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2005.12.019; PII: S0041-008X(06)00009-3; Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0041-008X
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BIOASSAY; CELL PROLIFERATION; CHRONIC EXPOSURE; CONDENSATES; DRUG ABUSE; ESTROGENS; GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY; GENES; IN VITRO; MARIHUANA; MASS SPECTROSCOPY; ORGANIC ACIDS; PHENOLS; RATS; RECEPTORS; SMOKES

Citation Formats

Lee, Soo Yeun, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Cheoncheon-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746, Oh, Seung Min, and Chung, Kyu Hyuck. Estrogenic effects of marijuana smoke condensate and cannabinoid compounds. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2005.12.019.
Lee, Soo Yeun, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Cheoncheon-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746, Oh, Seung Min, & Chung, Kyu Hyuck. Estrogenic effects of marijuana smoke condensate and cannabinoid compounds. United States. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2005.12.019.
Lee, Soo Yeun, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Cheoncheon-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746, Oh, Seung Min, and Chung, Kyu Hyuck. Tue . "Estrogenic effects of marijuana smoke condensate and cannabinoid compounds". United States. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2005.12.019.
@article{osti_20850381,
title = {Estrogenic effects of marijuana smoke condensate and cannabinoid compounds},
author = {Lee, Soo Yeun and Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Cheoncheon-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 and Oh, Seung Min and Chung, Kyu Hyuck},
abstractNote = {Chronic exposure to marijuana produces adverse effects on the endocrine and reproductive systems in humans; however, the experimental evidence for this presented thus far has not been without controversy. In this study, the estrogenic effect of marijuana smoke condensate (MSC) was evaluated using in vitro bioassays, viz., the cell proliferation assay, the reporter gene assay, and the ER competitive binding assay. The results of these assays were compared with those of three major cannabinoids, i.e., THC, CBD, and CBN. The estrogenic effect of MSC was further confirmed by the immature female rat uterotrophic assay. MSC stimulated the estrogenicity related to the ER-mediated pathway, while neither THC, CBD, nor CBN did. Moreover, treatment with 10 and 25 mg/kg MSC induced significant uterine response, and 10 mg/kg MSC resulted in an obvious change in the uterine epithelial cell appearance. MSC also enhanced the IGFBP-1 gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. To identify the constituents of MSC responsible for its estrogenicity, the MSC fractionated samples were examined using another cell proliferation assay, and the estrogenic active fraction was analyzed using GC-MS. In the organic acid fraction that showed the strongest estrogenic activity among the seven fractions of MSC, phenols were identified. Our results suggest that marijuana abuse is considered an endocrine-disrupting factor. Furthermore, these results suggest that the phenolic compounds contained in MSC play a role in its estrogenic effect.},
doi = {10.1016/j.taap.2005.12.019},
journal = {Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology},
issn = {0041-008X},
number = 3,
volume = 214,
place = {United States},
year = {2006},
month = {8}
}