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Title: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses

Abstract

Purpose: To report the clinical outcome of patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2004, 36 patients with malignancies of the sinonasal region were treated with IMRT. Thirty-two patients (89%) were treated in the postoperative setting after gross total resection. Treatment plans were designed to provide a dose of 70 Gy to 95% or more of the gross tumor volume (GTV) and 60 Gy to 95% or more of the clinical tumor volume (CTV) while sparing neighboring critical structures including the optic chiasm, optic nerves, eyes, and brainstem. The primary sites were: 13 ethmoid sinus, 10 maxillary sinus, 7 nasal cavity, and 6 other. Histology was: 12 squamous cell, 7 esthesioneuroblastoma, 5 adenoid cystic, 5 undifferentiated, 5 adenocarcinoma, and 2 other. Median follow-up was 51 months among surviving patients (range, 9-82 months). Results: The 2-year and 5-year estimates of local control were 62% and 58%, respectively. One patient developed isolated distant metastasis, and none developed isolated regional failure. The 5-year rates of disease-free and overall survival were 55% and 45%, respectively. The incidence of ocular toxicity was minimal with no patients reporting decreased vision. Latemore » complications included xerophthalmia (1 patient), lacrimal stenosis (1 patient), and cataract (1 patient). Conclusion: Although IMRT for malignancies of the sinonasal region does not appear to lead to significant improvements in disease control, the low incidence of complications is encouraging.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [1];  [4];  [3]
  1. Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA (United States)
  2. Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA (United States). E-mail: allenmchen@yahoo.com
  3. Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA (United States)
  4. Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20850308
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics; Journal Volume: 67; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2006.07.1389; PII: S0360-3016(06)02822-7; Copyright (c) 2007 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; CARCINOMAS; CATARACTS; EYES; FAILURES; HISTOLOGY; METASTASES; NERVES; PATIENTS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; SINUSES; TOXICITY

Citation Formats

Daly, Megan E., Chen, Allen M., Bucci, M. Kara, El-Sayed, Ivan, Xia Ping, Kaplan, Michael J., and Eisele, David W. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2006.07.1389.
Daly, Megan E., Chen, Allen M., Bucci, M. Kara, El-Sayed, Ivan, Xia Ping, Kaplan, Michael J., & Eisele, David W. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. United States. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2006.07.1389.
Daly, Megan E., Chen, Allen M., Bucci, M. Kara, El-Sayed, Ivan, Xia Ping, Kaplan, Michael J., and Eisele, David W. Mon . "Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses". United States. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2006.07.1389.
@article{osti_20850308,
title = {Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses},
author = {Daly, Megan E. and Chen, Allen M. and Bucci, M. Kara and El-Sayed, Ivan and Xia Ping and Kaplan, Michael J. and Eisele, David W.},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To report the clinical outcome of patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2004, 36 patients with malignancies of the sinonasal region were treated with IMRT. Thirty-two patients (89%) were treated in the postoperative setting after gross total resection. Treatment plans were designed to provide a dose of 70 Gy to 95% or more of the gross tumor volume (GTV) and 60 Gy to 95% or more of the clinical tumor volume (CTV) while sparing neighboring critical structures including the optic chiasm, optic nerves, eyes, and brainstem. The primary sites were: 13 ethmoid sinus, 10 maxillary sinus, 7 nasal cavity, and 6 other. Histology was: 12 squamous cell, 7 esthesioneuroblastoma, 5 adenoid cystic, 5 undifferentiated, 5 adenocarcinoma, and 2 other. Median follow-up was 51 months among surviving patients (range, 9-82 months). Results: The 2-year and 5-year estimates of local control were 62% and 58%, respectively. One patient developed isolated distant metastasis, and none developed isolated regional failure. The 5-year rates of disease-free and overall survival were 55% and 45%, respectively. The incidence of ocular toxicity was minimal with no patients reporting decreased vision. Late complications included xerophthalmia (1 patient), lacrimal stenosis (1 patient), and cataract (1 patient). Conclusion: Although IMRT for malignancies of the sinonasal region does not appear to lead to significant improvements in disease control, the low incidence of complications is encouraging.},
doi = {10.1016/j.ijrobp.2006.07.1389},
journal = {International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics},
number = 1,
volume = 67,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Purpose: The cure rate for unresectable malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is low. Because irradiation with proton beams, which are characterized by their rapid fall-off at the distal end of the Bragg peak and sharp lateral penumbra, depending on energy, depth, and delivery, provide better dose distribution than X-ray irradiation, proton beam therapy (PBT) might improve treatment outcomes for conditions located in proximity to risk organs. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical profile of PBT for unresectable malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Methods and Materials: We reviewed 39 patients in our database fulfilling the followingmore » criteria: unresectable malignant tumors of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses or skull base; N0M0 disease; and treatment with PBT (>60 GyE) from January 1999 to December 2006. Results: Median patient age was 57 years (range, 22-84 years); 22 of the patients were men and 17 were women. The most frequent primary site was the nasal cavity (n = 26, 67%). The local control rates at 6 months and 1 year were 84.6% and 77.0%, respectively. With a median active follow-up of 45.4 months, 3-year progression-free and overall survival were 49.1% and 59.3%, respectively. The most common acute toxicities were mild dermatitis (Grade 2, 33.3%), but no severe toxicity was observed (Grade 3 or greater, 0%). Five patients (12.8%) experienced Grade 3 to 5 late toxicities, and one treatment-related death was reported, caused by cerebrospinal fluid leakage Grade 5 (2.6%). Conclusion: These findings suggest that the clinical profile of PBT for unresectable malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses make it is a promising treatment option.« less
  • Purpose: To report outcomes in patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for tumors of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity (PNS/NC). Methods/Materials: Between June 2000 and December 2009, 52 patients with tumors of the PNS/NC underwent postoperative or definitive radiation with IMRT. Twenty-eight (54%) patients had squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Twenty-nine patients (56%) received chemotherapy. The median follow-up was 26.6 months (range, 2.9-118.4) for all patients and 30.9 months for living patients. Results: Eighteen patients (35%) developed local-regional failure (LRF) at median time of 7.2 months. Thirteen local failures (25%) were observed, 12 in-field and 1 marginal. Six regional failuresmore » were observed, two in-field and four out-of-field. No patients treated with elective nodal radiation had nodal regional failure. Two-year local-regional control (LRC), in-field LRC, freedom from distant metastasis (FFDM), and overall survival (OS) were 64%, 74%, 71%, and 66% among all patients, respectively, and 43%, 61%, 61%, and 53% among patients with SCC, respectively. On multivariate analysis, SCC and >1 subsite involved had worse LRC (p = 0.0004 and p = 0.046, respectively) and OS (p = 0.003 and p = 0.046, respectively). Cribriform plate invasion (p = 0.005) and residual disease (p = 0.047) also had worse LRC. Acute toxicities included Grade {>=}3 mucositis in 19 patients (37%), and Grade 3 dermatitis in 8 patients (15%). Six patients had Grade {>=}3 late toxicity including one optic toxicity. Conclusions: IMRT for patients with PNS/NC tumors has good outcomes compared with historical series and is well tolerated. Patients with SCC have worse LRC and OS. LRF is the predominant pattern of failure.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the long-term clinical outcome and toxicity of conventional and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Methods and Materials: Between January 1976 and February 2003, 127 patients with histologically proven cancer of the paranasal sinuses (n = 119) or nasal cavity (n = 8) were treated with preoperative (n = 61), postoperative (n = 51), or primary (n = 15) radiotherapy, using conventional (n = 74) or three-dimensional conformal (n = 53) techniques. No elective neck irradiation of the cervical lymph nodes was performed in N0 patients. Results: Median follow-up was 5.6more » years (range, 3-307 months) for all patients, and 7.3 years (range, 47-307 months) for patients still alive at the close-out date. The actuarial 5-year local control, overall survival, and disease-free survival rates were 53%, 54%, and 37%, respectively. Only 6 (5%) of all 127 patients and 4 (3%) of 122 originally N0 patients developed a regional failure in the neck. Distant metastasis occurred in 20% of patients. Both primary tumor extent and lymph node involvement were the most important prognostic factors, together with squamous cell carcinoma histology. Conclusion: Local failure remains the dominant cause of poor outcome for patients with sinonasal cancer, despite aggressive local treatment with combined surgery and radiotherapy in operable patients. Distant metastasis and certainly regional relapse were much less common sites of failure. Overall survival remains poor, suggesting the need for more efficacious local and possibly systemic therapy.« less
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences between volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the treatment of nasal cavity carcinomas. The treatment of 10 patients, who had completed IMRT treatment for resected tumors of the nasal cavity, was replanned with the Philips Pinnacle{sup 3} Version 9 treatment-planning system. The IMRT plans used a 9-beam technique whereas the VMAT (known as SmartArc) plans used a 3-arc technique. Both types of plans were optimized using Philips Pinnacle{sup 3} Direct Machine Parameter Optimization algorithm. IMRT and VMAT plans' quality was compared by evaluating the maximum,more » minimum, and mean doses to the target volumes and organs at risk, monitor units (MUs), and the treatment delivery time. Our results indicate that VMAT is capable of greatly reducing treatment delivery time and MUs compared with IMRT. The reduction of treatment delivery time and MUs can decrease the effects of intrafractional uncertainties that can occur because of patient movement during treatment delivery. VMAT's plans further reduce doses to critical structures that are in close proximity to the target volume.« less
  • Sixty paients with carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity were treated with conformation radiotherapy technique (an improved moving-field technique). Only 28 were suitable for long-term follow-up with regard to eye complications. All patients receiving more than 5,800 rads in 6 weeks (1,700 reu in cumulative-radiation-effect dose) had strong panophthalmia with corneal ulceration within 2 years of radiotherapy. Of 21 eyes receiving 800 to 1,700 reu (2,800 to 5,400 rads in 6 weeks), 18 experienced visual disturbance from radiation cataracts and 3 equivocal changes at postirradiation intervals of 5 years. No patient receiving less than 800 reu (2,800 radsmore » in 6 weeks) showed such complications.« less