skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Dilution-based emissions sampling from stationary sources: part 2 - gas-fired combustors compared with other fuel-fired systems

Abstract

With the recent focus on fine particle matter (PM2.5), new, self- consistent data are needed to characterize emissions from combustion sources. Emissions data for gas-fired combustors are presented, using dilution sampling as the reference. The sampling and analysis of the collected particles in the presence of precursor gases, SO{sub 2}, nitrogen oxide, volatile organic compound, and NH{sub 3} is discussed; the results include data from eight gas fired units, including a dual- fuel institutional boiler and a diesel engine powered electricity generator. These data are compared with results in the literature for heavy-duty diesel vehicles and stationary sources using coal or wood as fuels. The results show that the gas-fired combustors have very low PM2.5 mass emission rates in the range of {approximately}10{sup -4} lb/million Btu (MMBTU) compared with the diesel backup generator with particle filter, with {approximately} 5 x 10{sup -3} lb/MMBTU. Even higher mass emission rates are found in coal-fired systems, with rates of {approximately} 0.07 lb/MMBTU for a bag-filter-controlled pilot unit burning eastern bituminous coal. The characterization of PM2.5 chemical composition from the gas-fired units indicates that much of the measured primary particle mass in PM2.5 samples is organic or elemental carbon and, to a much lessmore » extent, sulfate. Metal emissions are low compared with the diesel engines and the coal- or wood-fueled combustors. The metals found in the gas- fired combustor particles are low in concentration. The interpretation of the particulate carbon emissions is complicated by the fact that an approximately equal amount of particulate carbon is found on the particle collector and a backup filter. It is likely that measurement artifacts are positively biasing 'true' particulate carbon emissions results. 49 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. GE Energy, Santa Ana, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20847486
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association; Journal Volume: 57; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: dhidy113@comcast.net
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 03 NATURAL GAS; 02 PETROLEUM; AIR SAMPLERS; STATIONARY POLLUTANT SOURCES; EMISSION; SAMPLING; MEASURING METHODS; PERFORMANCE; AIR POLLUTION MONITORING; DESIGN; US EPA; NATURAL GAS; COMBUSTORS; DIESEL FUELS; EXHAUST GASES; FLUE GAS; PARTICULATES; VOLATILE MATTER; PARTICLE SIZE; DILUTION; BENCH-SCALE EXPERIMENTS; FIELD TESTS; REFINERY GASES; FUEL GAS; CHEMICAL EFFLUENTS; GASEOUS WASTES; COAL; PRECURSOR; SULFUR DIOXIDE; NITROGEN OXIDES; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; WOOD; BITUMINOUS COAL; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; ACCURACY; DATA COVARIANCES; GRAMINEAE; BIOMASS; COMBUSTION; FUEL OILS

Citation Formats

England, G.C., Watson, J.G., Chow, J.C., Zielinska, B., Chang, M.C.O., Loos, K.R., and Hidy. G.M. Dilution-based emissions sampling from stationary sources: part 2 - gas-fired combustors compared with other fuel-fired systems. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1080/10473289.2007.10465304.
England, G.C., Watson, J.G., Chow, J.C., Zielinska, B., Chang, M.C.O., Loos, K.R., & Hidy. G.M. Dilution-based emissions sampling from stationary sources: part 2 - gas-fired combustors compared with other fuel-fired systems. United States. doi:10.1080/10473289.2007.10465304.
England, G.C., Watson, J.G., Chow, J.C., Zielinska, B., Chang, M.C.O., Loos, K.R., and Hidy. G.M. Mon . "Dilution-based emissions sampling from stationary sources: part 2 - gas-fired combustors compared with other fuel-fired systems". United States. doi:10.1080/10473289.2007.10465304.
@article{osti_20847486,
title = {Dilution-based emissions sampling from stationary sources: part 2 - gas-fired combustors compared with other fuel-fired systems},
author = {England, G.C. and Watson, J.G. and Chow, J.C. and Zielinska, B. and Chang, M.C.O. and Loos, K.R. and Hidy. G.M.},
abstractNote = {With the recent focus on fine particle matter (PM2.5), new, self- consistent data are needed to characterize emissions from combustion sources. Emissions data for gas-fired combustors are presented, using dilution sampling as the reference. The sampling and analysis of the collected particles in the presence of precursor gases, SO{sub 2}, nitrogen oxide, volatile organic compound, and NH{sub 3} is discussed; the results include data from eight gas fired units, including a dual- fuel institutional boiler and a diesel engine powered electricity generator. These data are compared with results in the literature for heavy-duty diesel vehicles and stationary sources using coal or wood as fuels. The results show that the gas-fired combustors have very low PM2.5 mass emission rates in the range of {approximately}10{sup -4} lb/million Btu (MMBTU) compared with the diesel backup generator with particle filter, with {approximately} 5 x 10{sup -3} lb/MMBTU. Even higher mass emission rates are found in coal-fired systems, with rates of {approximately} 0.07 lb/MMBTU for a bag-filter-controlled pilot unit burning eastern bituminous coal. The characterization of PM2.5 chemical composition from the gas-fired units indicates that much of the measured primary particle mass in PM2.5 samples is organic or elemental carbon and, to a much less extent, sulfate. Metal emissions are low compared with the diesel engines and the coal- or wood-fueled combustors. The metals found in the gas- fired combustor particles are low in concentration. The interpretation of the particulate carbon emissions is complicated by the fact that an approximately equal amount of particulate carbon is found on the particle collector and a backup filter. It is likely that measurement artifacts are positively biasing 'true' particulate carbon emissions results. 49 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs.},
doi = {10.1080/10473289.2007.10465304},
journal = {Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association},
number = 1,
volume = 57,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • The paper presents the design and performance of a compact dilution sampler (CDS) for characterizing fine particle emissions from stationary sources. The sampler is described, along with the methodology adopted for its use. Dilution sampling has a number of advantages, including source emissions that are measured under conditions simulating stack gas entry and mixing in the ambient atmosphere. This is particularly important for characterizing the semivolatile species in effluents as a part of particulate emissions. The CDS characteristics and performance are given, along with sampling methodology. The CDS was compared with a reference dilution sampler. The results indicate that themore » two designs are comparable for tests on gas-fired units and a diesel electrical generator. The performance data indicate that lower detection limits can be achieved relative to current regulatory methods for particulate emissions. Test data for the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions are provided for comparison with US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) Conditional Test Method 040 for filterable particulate matter (FPM) and the EPA Method 202 for condensable particulate matter. This comparison showed important differences between methods, depending on whether a comparison is done between in situ FPM determinations or the sum of such values with condensable PM from liquid filled impingers chilled in an ice bath. These differences are interpretable in the light of semivolatile material present in the stack effluent and, in some cases, differences in detection and quantification limits. Determination of emissions from combustors using liquid fuels can be readily achieved using 1-hr sampling with the CDS. Emissions from gas-fired combustors are low, requiring careful attention to sample volumes. 41 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.« less
  • Modification of the combustion process is an effective means of controlling nitrogen oxides and other atmospheric pollutant emissions from stationary combustion sources. Discussed is the influence of fuel oil composition and spray characteristics on the formation and control of nitrogen oxides. Detailed testing of 15 liquid fuels was conducted, using a 20 kw tunnel furnace. Staged combustion was shown to reduce significantly both fuel and nitrogen oxides emissions. (2 diagrams, 12 graphs, 20 references, 4 tables)
  • The report describes the initial development of a technique using dilution of stack gas with conditioned ambient air for measurement of the particulate mass of condensible emissions from stationary sources. The methodology developed is designed for widespread application to measure emissions which are in the vapor phase at temperatures greater than that of the Method 5 filter and which immediately condense to the particulate phase upon mixing in a temperature-controlled chamber with air that has been cooled, dried, and filtered. The front half of the condensibles air dilution train (CADT) is a Method 5 probe and filter. The promulgated EPAmore » Method 17 or the PM-10 methods (with a glass-lined probe) could be used for the CADT front half. The portion of the train for collection of condensibles (back half) includes a dilution air injection cone and a mixing chamber followed by a separate filter for condensibles. The temperature selected for the separate filter for condensibles is 20 C, and the dilution factor is 15:1 on a volume basis, high enough to prevent condensation of moisture. In the field testing, the stack gas condensible emission concentrations measured by the CADT ranged from 25.2 to 27.6 mg/dscm, and the average difference between the CADT and the impinger catch (IC) approach was 2%.« less
  • Landfilling is the most popular disposal method for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). However, air emissions from MSW landfills have generally been unregulated until recently. Instead, EPA has focused on emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs), even though they only manage 15% of MSW generated in the United States. In the past, little data have been available comparing landfill and MWC air emissions. Such information is provided by this paper. It also compares emissions from waste-to-energy MWCs and fossil fuel-fired utilities with equivalent electrical generation capacity. 1 refs., 6 tabs.
  • Abstract not provided.