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Title: Dilution-based emissions sampling from stationary sources: part 2 - gas-fired combustors compared with other fuel-fired systems

Abstract

With the recent focus on fine particle matter (PM2.5), new, self- consistent data are needed to characterize emissions from combustion sources. Emissions data for gas-fired combustors are presented, using dilution sampling as the reference. The sampling and analysis of the collected particles in the presence of precursor gases, SO{sub 2}, nitrogen oxide, volatile organic compound, and NH{sub 3} is discussed; the results include data from eight gas fired units, including a dual- fuel institutional boiler and a diesel engine powered electricity generator. These data are compared with results in the literature for heavy-duty diesel vehicles and stationary sources using coal or wood as fuels. The results show that the gas-fired combustors have very low PM2.5 mass emission rates in the range of {approximately}10{sup -4} lb/million Btu (MMBTU) compared with the diesel backup generator with particle filter, with {approximately} 5 x 10{sup -3} lb/MMBTU. Even higher mass emission rates are found in coal-fired systems, with rates of {approximately} 0.07 lb/MMBTU for a bag-filter-controlled pilot unit burning eastern bituminous coal. The characterization of PM2.5 chemical composition from the gas-fired units indicates that much of the measured primary particle mass in PM2.5 samples is organic or elemental carbon and, to a much lessmore » extent, sulfate. Metal emissions are low compared with the diesel engines and the coal- or wood-fueled combustors. The metals found in the gas- fired combustor particles are low in concentration. The interpretation of the particulate carbon emissions is complicated by the fact that an approximately equal amount of particulate carbon is found on the particle collector and a backup filter. It is likely that measurement artifacts are positively biasing 'true' particulate carbon emissions results. 49 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. GE Energy, Santa Ana, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20847486
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association; Journal Volume: 57; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: dhidy113@comcast.net
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 03 NATURAL GAS; 02 PETROLEUM; AIR SAMPLERS; STATIONARY POLLUTANT SOURCES; EMISSION; SAMPLING; MEASURING METHODS; PERFORMANCE; AIR POLLUTION MONITORING; DESIGN; US EPA; NATURAL GAS; COMBUSTORS; DIESEL FUELS; EXHAUST GASES; FLUE GAS; PARTICULATES; VOLATILE MATTER; PARTICLE SIZE; DILUTION; BENCH-SCALE EXPERIMENTS; FIELD TESTS; REFINERY GASES; FUEL GAS; CHEMICAL EFFLUENTS; GASEOUS WASTES; COAL; PRECURSOR; SULFUR DIOXIDE; NITROGEN OXIDES; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; WOOD; BITUMINOUS COAL; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; ACCURACY; DATA COVARIANCES; GRAMINEAE; BIOMASS; COMBUSTION; FUEL OILS

Citation Formats

England, G.C., Watson, J.G., Chow, J.C., Zielinska, B., Chang, M.C.O., Loos, K.R., and Hidy. G.M. Dilution-based emissions sampling from stationary sources: part 2 - gas-fired combustors compared with other fuel-fired systems. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1080/10473289.2007.10465304.
England, G.C., Watson, J.G., Chow, J.C., Zielinska, B., Chang, M.C.O., Loos, K.R., & Hidy. G.M. Dilution-based emissions sampling from stationary sources: part 2 - gas-fired combustors compared with other fuel-fired systems. United States. doi:10.1080/10473289.2007.10465304.
England, G.C., Watson, J.G., Chow, J.C., Zielinska, B., Chang, M.C.O., Loos, K.R., and Hidy. G.M. Mon . "Dilution-based emissions sampling from stationary sources: part 2 - gas-fired combustors compared with other fuel-fired systems". United States. doi:10.1080/10473289.2007.10465304.
@article{osti_20847486,
title = {Dilution-based emissions sampling from stationary sources: part 2 - gas-fired combustors compared with other fuel-fired systems},
author = {England, G.C. and Watson, J.G. and Chow, J.C. and Zielinska, B. and Chang, M.C.O. and Loos, K.R. and Hidy. G.M.},
abstractNote = {With the recent focus on fine particle matter (PM2.5), new, self- consistent data are needed to characterize emissions from combustion sources. Emissions data for gas-fired combustors are presented, using dilution sampling as the reference. The sampling and analysis of the collected particles in the presence of precursor gases, SO{sub 2}, nitrogen oxide, volatile organic compound, and NH{sub 3} is discussed; the results include data from eight gas fired units, including a dual- fuel institutional boiler and a diesel engine powered electricity generator. These data are compared with results in the literature for heavy-duty diesel vehicles and stationary sources using coal or wood as fuels. The results show that the gas-fired combustors have very low PM2.5 mass emission rates in the range of {approximately}10{sup -4} lb/million Btu (MMBTU) compared with the diesel backup generator with particle filter, with {approximately} 5 x 10{sup -3} lb/MMBTU. Even higher mass emission rates are found in coal-fired systems, with rates of {approximately} 0.07 lb/MMBTU for a bag-filter-controlled pilot unit burning eastern bituminous coal. The characterization of PM2.5 chemical composition from the gas-fired units indicates that much of the measured primary particle mass in PM2.5 samples is organic or elemental carbon and, to a much less extent, sulfate. Metal emissions are low compared with the diesel engines and the coal- or wood-fueled combustors. The metals found in the gas- fired combustor particles are low in concentration. The interpretation of the particulate carbon emissions is complicated by the fact that an approximately equal amount of particulate carbon is found on the particle collector and a backup filter. It is likely that measurement artifacts are positively biasing 'true' particulate carbon emissions results. 49 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs.},
doi = {10.1080/10473289.2007.10465304},
journal = {Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association},
number = 1,
volume = 57,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}