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Title: Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation

Abstract

The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process ofmore » humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Institute for Biological Research 'Sinisa Stankovic,' Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Department of Ecology
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20847444
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology; Journal Volume: 50; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: kalac@ibiss.bg.ac.yu
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; FLY ASH; DEPOSITION; FOSSIL-FUEL POWER PLANTS; BIOLOGICAL INDICATORS; PHENOLS; ORGANIC ACIDS; REVEGETATION; GROUND COVER; PLANTS; HUMUS; ABUNDANCE; SPECIES DIVERSITY; LAND RECLAMATION; SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION

Citation Formats

L. Djurdjevic, M. Mitrovic, P. Pavlovic, G. Gajic, and O. Kostic. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1007/s00244-005-0071-2.
L. Djurdjevic, M. Mitrovic, P. Pavlovic, G. Gajic, & O. Kostic. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation. United States. doi:10.1007/s00244-005-0071-2.
L. Djurdjevic, M. Mitrovic, P. Pavlovic, G. Gajic, and O. Kostic. Mon . "Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation". United States. doi:10.1007/s00244-005-0071-2.
@article{osti_20847444,
title = {Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation},
author = {L. Djurdjevic and M. Mitrovic and P. Pavlovic and G. Gajic and O. Kostic},
abstractNote = {The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.},
doi = {10.1007/s00244-005-0071-2},
journal = {Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology},
number = 4,
volume = 50,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon May 15 00:00:00 EDT 2006},
month = {Mon May 15 00:00:00 EDT 2006}
}
  • A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fly ash (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 g kg/sup -1/ of spoil) and agricultural lime (0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 g kg/sup -1/ of spoil) on ameliorating the low pH of acidic coal mine spoils. Topsoil depths of 0, 10, and 20 cm placed over the spoil were also evaluated. Two crops of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) were grown to evaluate effects of the amendments and topsoil on aboveground plant biomass, root biomass and distribution, and element content of the vegetation. All levels of lime and fly ashmore » significantly increase the spoil pH, aboveground plant biomass, and root biomass. Topsoil placement over the spoil also generally increased plant biomass. Root growth in untreated spoil was limited to the depth of topsoil. However, when the spoil was amended with either fly ash or lime root growth occurred throughout the material. Fly ash and lime did not cause elemental toxicities to the plants, except for B. Although visual B toxicity symptoms and elevated levels of plant B were evident, no reduction in plant biomass occurred. The results indicate that fly ash is a feasible alternative to lime for treating acidic coal spoils in the region.« less
  • Adsorption isotherms for adsorption of phenol, 3-chlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol from water onto fly ash were determined. These isotherms were modeled by the Freundlich isotherm. The fly ash adsorbed 67, 20, and 22 mg/g for phenol, chlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol, respectively, for the highest water phase concentrations used. The affinity of phenolic compounds for fly ash is above the expected amount corresponding to a monolayer coverage considering that the surface area of fly ash is only 1.87 m{sup 2}/g. The isotherms for contaminants studied were unfavorable, indicating that adsorption becomes progressively easier as more solutes are taken up. Phenol displayed a muchmore » higher affinity for fly ash than 3-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol.« less
  • The concentration of 21 elements in fly ash from three boilers (75 MW, 150 MW, and 300 MW) at the EGAT power plant, Mae Moh, Thailand, were determined by INAA. The concentration of 10 major elements was determined by XRF. As, Co, Cr, Ni, Mo, and Sb generally increase in concentration going from bottom ash (BA) through the sequence of electrostatic precipitator ashes (ESPA) and reach maxima of As (352 ppm), Co (45 ppm), Cr (105 ppm), Mo (32 ppm), Ni (106 ppm), and Sb (15 ppm) in the ESPA. Ce, Cs, Fe, Hf, La, Sc, Ta, Tb, and Ybmore » did not exhibit concentration trends or are variable except in the case of one boiler, which showed an increase going from BA to ESPA. Only Br decreased in composition going from BA to ESPA. Rb, Sm, U, and Th showed marked variation in trends. The major elements identified by EDS were Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Fe, and Ba, with minor amounts of Mg, Na, Ti, Mn, and Sr. Al, Si, K, and Ca occur together and are present in most of the fly-ash particles. Ba was found as a major component with Ca, Al, and Si. Fe and Ca are usually associated with sulfur. Some small spheres (< 5 {mu}m) are comprised almost entirely of Fe (probably as oxide). Symplectite textures are noted in high-Fe phases. All elements except Br are significantly enriched in the fly ash relative to the coal, which contains 35% ash. Particle chemistry is consistent with the major mineral phases identified by XRD, which include: quartz, magnetite, mullite, gehlenite, anorthite, hematite, anhydrite, and clinopyroxene.« less