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Title: Transient Fuel Behavior and Failure Condition in the CABRI-2 Experiments

Abstract

In the CABRI-2 program, 12 tests were performed under various transient conditions covering a wide range of accident scenarios using two types of preirradiated fast breeder reactor (FBR) fuel pins with different smear densities and burnups. For each fuel, a nonfailure-transient test was performed, and it provided basic information such as fuel thermal condition, fuel swelling, and gas release. From the failure tests, information on failure mode, failure time, and axial location was obtained. Based on this information, failure conditions such as fuel enthalpy and cladding temperature were evaluated. These failure conditions were compared with the CABRI-1 tests in which different fuels as well as different transient conditions were used. This comparison, together with supporting information available from existing in-pile and out-of-pile experiments, allowed an effective understanding on failure mechanisms depending on fuel and transient conditions. It is concluded that pellet-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI) due to fuel thermal expansion and fission-gas-induced swelling is playing an important role on mechanical clad loading especially with high smear density and low fuel-heating-rate conditions. At very high heating-rate conditions, there is no sufficient time to allow significant fuel swelling, so that cavity pressurization with fuel melting becomes the likely failure mechanism. Fuel smear densitymore » and fission-gas retention have a strong impact both on PCMI and cavity pressurization. Furthermore, pin failure is strongly dependent on cladding temperature, which plays an important role in the axial failure location. With the low smear-density fuel, considerable PCMI mitigation is possible leading to a high failure threshold as well as in-pin molten-fuel relocation along the central hole. However, even with the low smear density fuel, PCMI failure could take place with an elevated cladding-temperature condition. On the other hand, in case of a sufficiently long transient timescale, such low smear density fuel has a potential to allow gas escape to plenum leading to a very effective mitigation of swelling-induced PCMI.In case of very high cladding temperature near its melting point, plenum-gas blowout at cladding rupture takes place before fuel disintegration. Fuel-disintegration behavior under this condition is dominated by fuel enthalpy, and no special effect of the high burnup can be identified through comparison with the CABRI-1 test results.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (Japan)
  2. Centre d'Etude de Cadarache (France)
  3. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20840197
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Nuclear Technology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 145; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2006 American Nuclear Society (ANS), United States, All rights reserved. http://epubs.ans.org/; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0029-5450
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
21 SPECIFIC NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS; BLOWOUTS; BURNUP; CLADDING; DENSITY; ENTHALPY; FBR TYPE REACTORS; FISSION PRODUCTS; FUEL PINS; HEATING RATE; MELTING POINTS; PRESSURIZATION; RUPTURES; SWELLING; THERMAL EXPANSION; TRANSIENTS

Citation Formats

Sato, Ikken, Lemoine, Francette, and Struwe, Dankward. Transient Fuel Behavior and Failure Condition in the CABRI-2 Experiments. United States: N. p., 2004. Web.
Sato, Ikken, Lemoine, Francette, & Struwe, Dankward. Transient Fuel Behavior and Failure Condition in the CABRI-2 Experiments. United States.
Sato, Ikken, Lemoine, Francette, and Struwe, Dankward. Thu . "Transient Fuel Behavior and Failure Condition in the CABRI-2 Experiments". United States.
@article{osti_20840197,
title = {Transient Fuel Behavior and Failure Condition in the CABRI-2 Experiments},
author = {Sato, Ikken and Lemoine, Francette and Struwe, Dankward},
abstractNote = {In the CABRI-2 program, 12 tests were performed under various transient conditions covering a wide range of accident scenarios using two types of preirradiated fast breeder reactor (FBR) fuel pins with different smear densities and burnups. For each fuel, a nonfailure-transient test was performed, and it provided basic information such as fuel thermal condition, fuel swelling, and gas release. From the failure tests, information on failure mode, failure time, and axial location was obtained. Based on this information, failure conditions such as fuel enthalpy and cladding temperature were evaluated. These failure conditions were compared with the CABRI-1 tests in which different fuels as well as different transient conditions were used. This comparison, together with supporting information available from existing in-pile and out-of-pile experiments, allowed an effective understanding on failure mechanisms depending on fuel and transient conditions. It is concluded that pellet-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI) due to fuel thermal expansion and fission-gas-induced swelling is playing an important role on mechanical clad loading especially with high smear density and low fuel-heating-rate conditions. At very high heating-rate conditions, there is no sufficient time to allow significant fuel swelling, so that cavity pressurization with fuel melting becomes the likely failure mechanism. Fuel smear density and fission-gas retention have a strong impact both on PCMI and cavity pressurization. Furthermore, pin failure is strongly dependent on cladding temperature, which plays an important role in the axial failure location. With the low smear-density fuel, considerable PCMI mitigation is possible leading to a high failure threshold as well as in-pin molten-fuel relocation along the central hole. However, even with the low smear density fuel, PCMI failure could take place with an elevated cladding-temperature condition. On the other hand, in case of a sufficiently long transient timescale, such low smear density fuel has a potential to allow gas escape to plenum leading to a very effective mitigation of swelling-induced PCMI.In case of very high cladding temperature near its melting point, plenum-gas blowout at cladding rupture takes place before fuel disintegration. Fuel-disintegration behavior under this condition is dominated by fuel enthalpy, and no special effect of the high burnup can be identified through comparison with the CABRI-1 test results.},
doi = {},
journal = {Nuclear Technology},
issn = {0029-5450},
number = 1,
volume = 145,
place = {United States},
year = {2004},
month = {1}
}