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Title: Characterization and source assessment of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of the Fosu lagoon, Ghana

Abstract

The first results ever obtained on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) concentrations in the Fosu lagoon surface sediments are presented together with corresponding heavy metal (Fe, Mn, Cd, Zn and Ni) concentrations. Samples collected on a monthly basis from November 2003-April 2004 (heavy metals) and December 2003-January 2004 (PAHs) at 8 locations, representing different anthropogenic sources of contamination to the lagoon, were analyzed. Concentrations of Cd and Ni in the lagoon sediment suggest greater contamination to the lagoon from industrial activities in the vicinity of the lagoon; 50% of the sediment samples exceeded some established sediment Cd guidelines for the protection of aquatic lives. Then, 15 PAHs were detected among the sediments from the different locations and the compositional pattern in decreasing order was 3-ring {gt} 5-ring {gt} 4-ring {gt} 6-ring {gt} 2-ring PAH compounds. {Sigma} PAH concentrations in the sediment samples ranged from 254 to 558 mg/kg, with a mean of 359.4 mg/kg. Two distinct areas were identified to be a major source of anthropogenic load of both heavy metals and PAH; the mechanical shop in the northeastern sector of the lagoon is the main location for the input of Cd and it's associated PAH compounds (e.g., acenapthylene, acenaphthene, naphthalenemore » and benzo(a)fluoranthene) and to a lesser extent Ni. Both combustion and petroleum sources may account for PAH loads from this area. The residential area in the northern sector is responsible for high loads of Mn and its associated PAH compounds (e.g., phenanthrene, benzo(a)pyrene and anthracene). These chemicals seem to enter the lagoon mainly by the combustion of especially wood or coal.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Sask Power, Estevan, SK (Canada)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20838278
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A: Toxic Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering; Journal Volume: 41; Journal Issue: 12
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; METALS; POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS; SEDIMENTS; GHANA; PONDS; CONCENTRATION RATIO; CONTAMINATION; POLLUTION SOURCES; WATER POLLUTION; CADMIUM; PETROLEUM; MANGANESE; WOOD; COAL; COMBUSTION PRODUCTS

Citation Formats

Gilbert, E., Dodoo, D.K., Okai-Sam, F., Essuman, K., and Quagraine, E.K.. Characterization and source assessment of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of the Fosu lagoon, Ghana. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1080/10934520600966649.
Gilbert, E., Dodoo, D.K., Okai-Sam, F., Essuman, K., & Quagraine, E.K.. Characterization and source assessment of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of the Fosu lagoon, Ghana. United States. doi:10.1080/10934520600966649.
Gilbert, E., Dodoo, D.K., Okai-Sam, F., Essuman, K., and Quagraine, E.K.. Fri . "Characterization and source assessment of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of the Fosu lagoon, Ghana". United States. doi:10.1080/10934520600966649.
@article{osti_20838278,
title = {Characterization and source assessment of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of the Fosu lagoon, Ghana},
author = {Gilbert, E. and Dodoo, D.K. and Okai-Sam, F. and Essuman, K. and Quagraine, E.K.},
abstractNote = {The first results ever obtained on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) concentrations in the Fosu lagoon surface sediments are presented together with corresponding heavy metal (Fe, Mn, Cd, Zn and Ni) concentrations. Samples collected on a monthly basis from November 2003-April 2004 (heavy metals) and December 2003-January 2004 (PAHs) at 8 locations, representing different anthropogenic sources of contamination to the lagoon, were analyzed. Concentrations of Cd and Ni in the lagoon sediment suggest greater contamination to the lagoon from industrial activities in the vicinity of the lagoon; 50% of the sediment samples exceeded some established sediment Cd guidelines for the protection of aquatic lives. Then, 15 PAHs were detected among the sediments from the different locations and the compositional pattern in decreasing order was 3-ring {gt} 5-ring {gt} 4-ring {gt} 6-ring {gt} 2-ring PAH compounds. {Sigma} PAH concentrations in the sediment samples ranged from 254 to 558 mg/kg, with a mean of 359.4 mg/kg. Two distinct areas were identified to be a major source of anthropogenic load of both heavy metals and PAH; the mechanical shop in the northeastern sector of the lagoon is the main location for the input of Cd and it's associated PAH compounds (e.g., acenapthylene, acenaphthene, naphthalene and benzo(a)fluoranthene) and to a lesser extent Ni. Both combustion and petroleum sources may account for PAH loads from this area. The residential area in the northern sector is responsible for high loads of Mn and its associated PAH compounds (e.g., phenanthrene, benzo(a)pyrene and anthracene). These chemicals seem to enter the lagoon mainly by the combustion of especially wood or coal.},
doi = {10.1080/10934520600966649},
journal = {Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A: Toxic Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering},
number = 12,
volume = 41,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Dec 15 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Fri Dec 15 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • Based on the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 12 surface sediment samples from Yellow Sea, the relative risk of 9 PAHs was investigated using joint risk probability distribution curves and overlapping area, which were generated based on the distributions of exposure and acute toxicity data (LC50), and the sources of PAHs were apportioned using principal component analysis. It was found that joint probability curve and overlapping area indicated the acceptable ecological risk of individual PAHs, only a small fraction of the benthic organisms was affected. Among the nine PAHs studied, the overall risk of pyrene was the highest,more » with that of naphthalene the lowest. For lower exposure levels at which the percentage of species affected was less than 10%, the risk associated with phenanthrene and fluorene were clearly higher than that of the other seven PAHs. It was indicated that PAHs in surface sediments mainly originated from vehicular emissions, coal combustion sources, coke oven emission and wood combustion, petroleum origin made little influence on sources of PAHs by PCA.« less
  • The goal of this paper was to quantify and characterize microorganisms (bacteria) in sediment samples contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs: fluorene and naphthalene). The isolated organisms were evaluated for their ability to degrade PAHs compounds. The results indicated that the total number of recovered heterotrophic colony forming units was higher than zone forming units produced by the PAHs compounds. There was a relationship between the biomass of the bacteria recovered from the sediment and the degradation of the compounds. This indicated the utilization of the compounds by the bacteria as a carbon source. Two bacterial species were isolated frommore » the contaminated sediments and identified as Pseudomonas sp. and Ochrobactrum sp. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.« less
  • Lung cancer caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs and related environmental agents is a major problem in industrialized nations. The high case-fatality rate of the disease, even with the best supportive treatment, underscores the importance of primary lung cancer prevention. Development of biomarkers of exposure and effects to PAHs and related compounds is now underway and includes measurement of urinary metabolites of specific PAHs as well as detection of protein and DNA adducts as indicators of effective dose. Validation of these markers in terms of total environmental dose requires that concurrent measures of air levels and potential dermal exposuremore » be made. In addition, the interrelationships between PAH biomarkers must be determined, particularly when levels of the marker in surrogate molecules (e.g., protein) or markers from surrogate tissues (e.g., lymphocyte DNA) are used to assess the risk to the target organ, the lung. Two approaches to biomarker studies will be reviewed in this article the progress made using blood lymphocytes as surrogates for lung tissues and the progress made developing noninvasive markers of carcinogen-DNA adduct levels in lung-derived cells available in bronchial-alveolar lavage and in sputum. Data are presented from studies in which exfoliated urothelial cells were used as a surrogate tissue to assess exposure to human urinary bladder carcinogens in occupational groups. 38 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.« less
  • Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are predominate toxic constituents of particulate air pollution that may be related to the increased risk of cardiopulmonary events. We aim to investigate the effects of the toxic heavy metals (arsenic, As; cadmium, Cd; chromium, Cr; nickel, Ni; and lead, Pb), and their interactions with PAHs on oxidative stress among coke-oven workers. A total of 1333 male workers were recruited in this study. We determined their urinary levels of As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, twelve PAH metabolites, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α (8-iso-PGF2α). Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze the effects ofmore » these metals and their interactions with PAHs on 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α levels. It was found that only urinary As and Ni showed marginal or significant positive linear dose-dependent effects on 8-OHdG in this study population, especially among smokers (β=0.103, P=0.073 and β=0.110, P=0.002, respectively). After stratifying all participants by the quartiles of ΣOH-PAH, all five metals showed linear association with 8-OHdG in the highest quartile subgroup (Q4) of ΣOH-PAHs. However, these five urinary metals showed significantly consistent linear associations with 8-iso-PGF2α in all subjects and each stratum. Urinary ΣOH-PAHs can significant modify the effects of heavy metals on oxidative stress, while co-exposure to both high levels of ΣOH-PAHs and heavy metals render the workers with highest 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α (all P{sub interaction}≤0.005). This study showed evidence on the interaction effects of heavy metals and PAHs on increasing the oxidative stress, and these results warrant further investigation in more longitudinal studies. - Highlights: • Heavy metals and PAHs are predominate toxic constituents of particulate matters. • Urinary As and Ni showed linear dose-dependent effects on 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α. • PAHs significant interact with toxic metal in increasing 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α. • Co-exposure to high PAHs and toxic metals contribute to highest oxidative stress.« less
  • A new on-line precolumn preconcentration method for the determination of EPA priority pollutants (PAHs) in river and sea water has been developed. The retention time for each PAH in the precolumn has been determined for several percentages of organic solvent (acetonitrile) in the sample. This is very important because recoveries show a great dependence on this parameter. The proposed procedure, combined with HPLC and spectrofluorimetric detection, reaches very low detection limits (subnanograms per liter) and it has been applied to river and sea water samples with good results.