## Criteria for the absence of quantum fluctuations after spontaneous symmetry breaking

The lowest-energy state of a macroscopic system in which symmetry is spontaneously broken, is a very stable wavepacket centered around a spontaneously chosen, classical direction in symmetry space. However, for a Heisenberg ferromagnet the quantum groundstate is exactly the classical groundstate, there are no quantum fluctuations. This coincides with seven exceptional properties of the ferromagnet, including spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking, a reduced number of Nambu–Goldstone modes and the absence of a thin spectrum (Anderson tower of states). Recent discoveries of other non-relativistic systems with fewer Nambu–Goldstone modes suggest these specialties apply there as well. I establish precise criteria for themore »