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Title: Recent Innovations in Muon Beam Cooling

Abstract

Eight new ideas are being developed under SBIR/STTR grants to cool muon beams for colliders, neutrino factories, and muon experiments. Analytical and simulation studies have confirmed that a six-dimensional (6D) cooling channel based on helical magnets surrounding RF cavities filled with dense hydrogen gas can provide effective beam cooling. This helical cooling channel (HCC) has solenoidal, helical dipole, helical quadrupole, and helical sextupole magnetic fields to generate emittance exchange and achieve 6D emittance reduction of over 3 orders of magnitude in a 100 m segment. Four such sequential HCC segments, where the RF frequencies are increased and transverse physical dimensions reduced as the beams become cooler, implies a 6D emittance reduction of almost five orders of magnitude. Two new cooling ideas, Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling and Reverse Emittance Exchange, then can be employed to reduce transverse emittances to a few mm-mr, which allows high luminosity with fewer muons than previously imagined. We describe these new ideas as well as a new precooling idea based on a HCC with z dependent fields that can be used as MANX, an exceptional 6D cooling demonstration experiment.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [2]; ; ;  [3]
  1. Muons, Inc., Batavia, Illinois (United States)
  2. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois (United States)
  3. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia (United States) (and others)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20798432
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 821; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: COOL05: International workshop on beam cooling and related topics, Galena, IL (United States), 18-23 Sep 2005; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2190143; (c) 2006 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; ACCELERATORS; ADIABATIC DEMAGNETIZATION; BEAM BENDING MAGNETS; BEAM COOLING; BEAM DYNAMICS; BEAM FOCUSING MAGNETS; BEAM LUMINOSITY; CAVITY RESONATORS; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; DIPOLES; HYDROGEN; IONIZATION; MAGNETIC FIELDS; MUON BEAMS; MUONS; NEUTRINOS; QUADRUPOLES

Citation Formats

Johnson, Rolland P., Alsharo'a, Mohammad, Hanlet, Pierrick M., Hartline, Robert, Kuchnir, Moyses, Paul, Kevin, Roberts, Thomas J., Ankenbrandt, Charles, Barzi, Emanuela, Del Frate, Licia, Gonin, Ivan, Moretti, Alfred, Neuffer, David, Popovic, Milorad, Romanov, Gennady, Turrioni, Daniele, Yarba, Victor, Beard, Kevin, Bogacz, S. Alex, and Derbenev, Yaroslav. Recent Innovations in Muon Beam Cooling. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2190143.
Johnson, Rolland P., Alsharo'a, Mohammad, Hanlet, Pierrick M., Hartline, Robert, Kuchnir, Moyses, Paul, Kevin, Roberts, Thomas J., Ankenbrandt, Charles, Barzi, Emanuela, Del Frate, Licia, Gonin, Ivan, Moretti, Alfred, Neuffer, David, Popovic, Milorad, Romanov, Gennady, Turrioni, Daniele, Yarba, Victor, Beard, Kevin, Bogacz, S. Alex, & Derbenev, Yaroslav. Recent Innovations in Muon Beam Cooling. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2190143.
Johnson, Rolland P., Alsharo'a, Mohammad, Hanlet, Pierrick M., Hartline, Robert, Kuchnir, Moyses, Paul, Kevin, Roberts, Thomas J., Ankenbrandt, Charles, Barzi, Emanuela, Del Frate, Licia, Gonin, Ivan, Moretti, Alfred, Neuffer, David, Popovic, Milorad, Romanov, Gennady, Turrioni, Daniele, Yarba, Victor, Beard, Kevin, Bogacz, S. Alex, and Derbenev, Yaroslav. Mon . "Recent Innovations in Muon Beam Cooling". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2190143.
@article{osti_20798432,
title = {Recent Innovations in Muon Beam Cooling},
author = {Johnson, Rolland P. and Alsharo'a, Mohammad and Hanlet, Pierrick M. and Hartline, Robert and Kuchnir, Moyses and Paul, Kevin and Roberts, Thomas J. and Ankenbrandt, Charles and Barzi, Emanuela and Del Frate, Licia and Gonin, Ivan and Moretti, Alfred and Neuffer, David and Popovic, Milorad and Romanov, Gennady and Turrioni, Daniele and Yarba, Victor and Beard, Kevin and Bogacz, S. Alex and Derbenev, Yaroslav},
abstractNote = {Eight new ideas are being developed under SBIR/STTR grants to cool muon beams for colliders, neutrino factories, and muon experiments. Analytical and simulation studies have confirmed that a six-dimensional (6D) cooling channel based on helical magnets surrounding RF cavities filled with dense hydrogen gas can provide effective beam cooling. This helical cooling channel (HCC) has solenoidal, helical dipole, helical quadrupole, and helical sextupole magnetic fields to generate emittance exchange and achieve 6D emittance reduction of over 3 orders of magnitude in a 100 m segment. Four such sequential HCC segments, where the RF frequencies are increased and transverse physical dimensions reduced as the beams become cooler, implies a 6D emittance reduction of almost five orders of magnitude. Two new cooling ideas, Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling and Reverse Emittance Exchange, then can be employed to reduce transverse emittances to a few mm-mr, which allows high luminosity with fewer muons than previously imagined. We describe these new ideas as well as a new precooling idea based on a HCC with z dependent fields that can be used as MANX, an exceptional 6D cooling demonstration experiment.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2190143},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 821,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Mar 20 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Mon Mar 20 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • A six-dimensional(6D)cooling channel based on helical magnets surrounding RF cavities filled with dense hydrogen gas* is used to achieve the small transverse emittances demanded by a high-luminosity muon collider. This helical cooling channel**(HCC) has solenoidal, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole magnetic fields to generate emittance exchange. Simulations verify the analytic predictions and have shown a 6D emittance reduction of over 3 orders of magnitude in a 100 m HCC segment. Using three such sequential HCC segments, where the RF frequencies are increased and transverse dimensions reduced as the beams become cooler, implies a 6D emittance reduction of almost six ordersmore » of magnitude. After this, two new post-cooling ideas can be employed to reduce transverse emittances to one or two mm-mr, which allows high luminosity with fewer muons than previously imagined. In this report we discuss the status of and the plans for the HCC simulation and engineering efforts. We also describe the new post-cooling ideas and comment on the prospects for a Higgs factory or energy frontier muon collider using existing laboratory infrastructure.« less
  • Eight new ideas are being developed under SBIR/STTR grants to cool muon beams for colliders, neutrino factories, and muon experiments. Analytical and simulation studies have confirmed that a six-dimensional (6D) cooling channel based on helical magnets surrounding RF cavities filled with dense hydrogen gas can provide effective beam cooling. This helical cooling channel (HCC) has solenoidal, helical dipole, helical quadrupole, and helical sextupole magnetic fields to generate emittance exchange and achieve 6D emittance reduction of over 3 orders of magnitude in a 100 m segment. Four such sequential HCC segments, where the RF frequencies are increased and transverse physical dimensionsmore » reduced as the beams become cooler, implies a 6D emittance reduction of almost five orders of magnitude. Two new cooling ideas, Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling and Reverse Emittance Exchange, then can be employed to reduce transverse emittances to a few mm-mr, which allows high luminosity with fewer muons than previously imagined. We describe these new ideas as well as a new precooling idea based on a HCC with z dependent fields that can be used as MANX, an exceptional 6D cooling demonstration experiment.« less
  • The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), which is under construction at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), will demonstrate the principle of ionization cooling as a technique for the reduction of the phase-space volume occupied by a muon beam. Ionization cooling channels are required for the Neutrino Factory and the Muon Collider. MICE will evaluate in detail the performance of a single lattice cell of the Feasibility Study 2 cooling channel. The MICE Muon Beam has been constructed at the ISIS synchrotron at RAL, and in MICE Step I, it has been characterized using the MICE beam-instrumentation system. In thismore » paper, the MICE Muon Beam and beam-line instrumentation are described. The muon rate is presented as a function of the beam loss generated by the MICE target dipping into the ISIS proton beam. For a 1 V signal from the ISIS beam-loss monitors downstream of our target we obtain a 30 KHz instantaneous muon rate, with a neglible pion contamination in the beam.« less
  • The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), which is under construction at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), will demonstrate the principle of ionization cooling as a technique for the reduction of the phase-space volume occupied by a muon beam. Ionization cooling channels are required for the Neutrino Factory and the Muon Collider. MICE will evaluate in detail the performance of a single lattice cell of the Feasibility Study 2 cooling channel. The MICE Muon Beam has been constructed at the ISIS synchrotron at RAL, and in MICE Step I, it has been characterized using the MICE beam-instrumentation system. In thismore » paper, the MICE Muon Beam and beam-line instrumentation are described. The muon rate is presented as a function of the beam loss generated by the MICE target dipping into the ISIS proton beam. For a 1 V signal from the ISIS beam-loss monitors downstream of our target we obtain a 30 KHz instantaneous muon rate, with a neglible pion contamination in the beam.« less
  • The fast reduction of the six-dimensional phase space of muon beams is an essential requirement for muon colliders and also of great importance for neutrino factories based on accelerated muon beams. Ionization cooling, where all momentum components are degraded by an energy absorbing material and only the longitudinal momentum is restored by rf cavities, provides a means to quickly reduce transverse beam sizes. However, the beam energy spread cannot be reduced by this method unless the longitudinal emittance can be transformed or exchanged into the transverse emittance. Emittance exchange plans until now have been accomplished by using magnets to dispersemore » the beam along the face of a wedge-shaped absorber such that higher momentum particles pass through thicker parts of the absorber and thus suffer larger ionization energy loss. In the scheme advocated in this paper, a special magnetic channel designed such that higher momentum corresponds to a longer path length, and therefore larger ionization energy loss, provides the desired emittance exchange in a homogeneous absorber without special edge shaping. Normal-conducting rf cavities imbedded in the magnetic field regenerate the energy lost in the absorber. One very attractive example of a cooling channel based on this principle uses a series of high-gradient rf cavities filled with dense hydrogen gas, where the cavities are in a magnetic channel composed of a solenoidal field with superimposed helical transverse dipole and quadrupole fields. In this scheme, the energy loss, the rf energy regeneration, the emittance exchange, and the transverse cooling happen simultaneously. The theory of this helical channel is described in some detail to support the analytical prediction of almost a factor of 106 reduction in six-dimensional phase space volume in a channel about 56 m long. Equations describing the particle beam dynamics are derived and beam stability conditions are explored. Equations describing six-dimensional cooling in this channel are also derived, including explicit expressions for cooling decrements and equilibrium emittances.« less