skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Comment on the Word 'Cooling' as it is Used in Beam Physics

Abstract

Beam physicists use the word 'cooling' differently than it is used by the general public or even by other physicists. It is recommended that we no longer use this term, but replace it with some other term such as: 'Phase Density Cooling' (PDF) or 'damping', or alternatively 'Liouville Cooling', which would make our field more easily understood by outsiders.

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, BLDG: 71R0259, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20798431
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 821; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: COOL05: International workshop on beam cooling and related topics, Galena, IL (United States), 18-23 Sep 2005; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2190087; (c) 2006 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; BEAM COOLING; DAMPING; DENSITY; PARTICLE BEAMS; PHASE SPACE

Citation Formats

Sessler, Andrew M. Comment on the Word 'Cooling' as it is Used in Beam Physics. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2190087.
Sessler, Andrew M. Comment on the Word 'Cooling' as it is Used in Beam Physics. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2190087.
Sessler, Andrew M. Mon . "Comment on the Word 'Cooling' as it is Used in Beam Physics". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2190087.
@article{osti_20798431,
title = {Comment on the Word 'Cooling' as it is Used in Beam Physics},
author = {Sessler, Andrew M.},
abstractNote = {Beam physicists use the word 'cooling' differently than it is used by the general public or even by other physicists. It is recommended that we no longer use this term, but replace it with some other term such as: 'Phase Density Cooling' (PDF) or 'damping', or alternatively 'Liouville Cooling', which would make our field more easily understood by outsiders.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2190087},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 821,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Mar 20 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Mon Mar 20 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • The Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academy of Sciences recently completed a critical review of the scientific literature pertaining to the association of indoor dampness and mold contamination with adverse health effects. In this paper, we report the results of quantitative meta-analysis of the studies reviewed in the IOM report. We developed point estimates and confidence intervals (CIs) to summarize the association of several respiratory and asthma-related health outcomes with the presence of dampness and mold in homes. The odds ratios and confidence intervals from the original studies were transformed to the log scale and random effect modelsmore » were applied to the log odds ratios and their variance. Models were constructed both accounting for the correlation between multiple results within the studies analyzed and ignoring such potential correlation. Central estimates of ORs for the health outcomes ranged from 1.32 to 2.10, with most central estimates between 1.3 and 1.8. Confidence intervals (95%) excluded unity except in two of 28 instances, and in most cases the lower bound of the CI exceeded 1.2. In general, the two meta-analysis methods produced similar estimates for ORs and CIs. Based on the results of the meta-analyses, building dampness and mold are associated with approximately 30% to 80% increases in a variety of respiratory and asthma-related health outcomes. The results of these meta-analyses reinforce the IOM's recommendation that actions be taken to prevent and reduce building dampness problems.« less
  • There are many examples of achievements in physics which would not be possible without cooling. Different mechanisms for cooling exist and some will be presented in this introductory talk where we distinguish between 'relative' and 'absolute' cooling. A short reminder to high and medium energy physics with antiprotons as performed at the accelerators of CERN will be delineated. The success in applying cooling of beams in hadron physics at the internal COSY-11 experiment installed at the cooler synchrotron COSY will be presented. COSY-11 aims for meson production investigations at threshold in nucleon-nucleon collisions. Again, such investigations would not be feasiblemore » without cooling especially regarding the precision required and obtained. The need of cooling for the production and trapping of antihydrogen atoms is demonstrated - as an example - by the ATRAP experiment at the CERN antiproton decelerator AD aiming for a comparison of hydrogen (H0) to antihydrogen (H-bar0) atom spectroscopy.« less
  • Energy costs and operating efficiency have gained considerable importance in the minds of many building owners and plant operators in recent years. Current prospects for future energy prices suggest that these issues will become even more urgent as environmental concerns and the high cost of money exert an ever greater impact on building design and operation. This article describes several free cooling design schemes. It also includes a review of the basic air-conditioning scheme as it applies to free cooling and a discussion of the trade-offs involved in equipment selection.
  • No abstract prepared.