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Title: Thermal and Electromigration-Induced Strains in Polycrystalline Films and Conductor Lines: X-ray Microbeam Measurements and Analysis

Abstract

X-ray microbeam measurements of thermal and electromigration-induced strains have been made at NSLS using white-beam energy dispersive x-ray diffraction, averaging over many grains, and at APS using white-beam Laue x-ray diffraction, from single grains. Grain-by-grain deviatoric strain measurements in Al films show wide variation in behavior for different grains in the films. Room temperature relaxation of residual strains was observed to occur at different rates for Al films with different bonding layers and substrates. X-ray microbeam measurements of strain development during electromigration for Cu and Al conductor lines show that strain gradients do not develop in the copper lines under conditions similar to those for which large strain gradients have been seen for Al lines.

Authors:
; ; ;  [1];  [2]; ; ;  [3]
  1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States)
  2. IBM Research, Yorktown Hts., NY 10598 (United States)
  3. Condensed Matter Sciences Division., Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20798191
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 817; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: 8. international workshop on stress-induced phenomena in metallization, Dresden (Germany), 12-14 Sep 2005; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2173563; (c) 2006 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ALUMINIUM; COPPER; ELECTROPHORESIS; LAYERS; POLYCRYSTALS; RELAXATION; STRAINS; SUBSTRATES; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0273-0400 K; THERMAL ANALYSIS; THIN FILMS; VARIATIONS; X-RAY DIFFRACTION

Citation Formats

Cargill, G. S. III, Moyer, L. E., Wang, G., Zhang, H., Hu, C.-K., Yang, W., Larson, B. C., and Ice, G. E. Thermal and Electromigration-Induced Strains in Polycrystalline Films and Conductor Lines: X-ray Microbeam Measurements and Analysis. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2173563.
Cargill, G. S. III, Moyer, L. E., Wang, G., Zhang, H., Hu, C.-K., Yang, W., Larson, B. C., & Ice, G. E. Thermal and Electromigration-Induced Strains in Polycrystalline Films and Conductor Lines: X-ray Microbeam Measurements and Analysis. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2173563.
Cargill, G. S. III, Moyer, L. E., Wang, G., Zhang, H., Hu, C.-K., Yang, W., Larson, B. C., and Ice, G. E. Tue . "Thermal and Electromigration-Induced Strains in Polycrystalline Films and Conductor Lines: X-ray Microbeam Measurements and Analysis". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2173563.
@article{osti_20798191,
title = {Thermal and Electromigration-Induced Strains in Polycrystalline Films and Conductor Lines: X-ray Microbeam Measurements and Analysis},
author = {Cargill, G. S. III and Moyer, L. E. and Wang, G. and Zhang, H. and Hu, C.-K. and Yang, W. and Larson, B. C. and Ice, G. E.},
abstractNote = {X-ray microbeam measurements of thermal and electromigration-induced strains have been made at NSLS using white-beam energy dispersive x-ray diffraction, averaging over many grains, and at APS using white-beam Laue x-ray diffraction, from single grains. Grain-by-grain deviatoric strain measurements in Al films show wide variation in behavior for different grains in the films. Room temperature relaxation of residual strains was observed to occur at different rates for Al films with different bonding layers and substrates. X-ray microbeam measurements of strain development during electromigration for Cu and Al conductor lines show that strain gradients do not develop in the copper lines under conditions similar to those for which large strain gradients have been seen for Al lines.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2173563},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 817,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Feb 07 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Tue Feb 07 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • X-ray microbeam measurements of thermal and electromigration-induced strains have been made at NSLS using white-beam energy dispersive x-ray diffraction, averaging over many grains, and at APS using white-beam Laue x-ray diffraction, from single grains. Grain-by-grain deviatoric strain measurements in Al films show wide variation in behavior for different grains in the films. Room temperature relaxation of residual strains was observed to occur at different rates for Al films with different bonding layers and substrates. X-ray microbeam measurements of strain development during electromigration for Cu and Al conductor lines show that strain gradients do not develop in the copper lines undermore » conditions similar to those for which large strain gradients have been seen for Al lines« less
  • No abstract prepared.
  • Thermally induced residual strains in polycrystalline Cu and Al films on single crystal Si and glass substrates, respectively, have been examined on a grain-by-grain basis by x-ray microbeam diffraction. The crystallographic orientation and the deviatoric strain tensor, {var_epsilon}{sub ij}*, are determined for each grain by white beam Laue diffraction. From grain orientation mapping and strain tensor measurements, information is obtained about the distributions of strains for similarly oriented grains, about strain variations within single grains, and about grain-to-grain correlations of strains. This type of information may be useful in developing and testing theories for intergrain effects in strain evolution inmore » polycrystals.« less
  • No abstract prepared.
  • The distribution of elastic strains at the submicrometre length scale within deformed metal single crystals has remarkably broad implications for our understanding of important physical phenomena. These include the evolution of the complex dislocation structures that govern mechanical behaviour within individual grains, the transport of dislocations through such structures, changes in mechanical properties that occur during reverse loading (for example, sheet-metal forming and fatigue), and the analyses of diffraction line profiles for microstructural studies of these phenomena.