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Title: Application of Resistive Bolometer to Measurement of X-Ray Radiation from Laser Plasmas

Abstract

A metal resistor thin-film bolometer was fabricated using the micro lithographic method and then applied to measurement of x-ray emission from gas-puff targets in the experiments at 1-kJ PALS laser in Prague. The detection head with the bolometer is equipped with a precise system for its calibration. The bolometer is of 4-{mu}m Au capturing layer and 100 % efficiency up to 5 keV. The lowest measurable flux is 5x10-9 J/cm2.

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]; ;  [3]; ; ; ;  [4];  [5]
  1. Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Hery 23, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)
  2. Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)
  3. Military University of Technology, Institute of Optoelectronics, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)
  4. Institute of Physics, ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 181 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)
  5. Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20797915
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 812; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: PLASMA 2005: International conference on research and applications of plasmas; 3. German-Polish conference on plasma diagnostics for fusion and applications; 5. French-Polish seminar on thermal plasma in space and laboratory, Opole-Turawa (Poland), 6-9 Sep 2005; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2168840; (c) 2006 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; BOLOMETERS; CALIBRATION; EFFICIENCY; KEV RANGE; LASER-PRODUCED PLASMA; LASERS; LAYERS; PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS; PLASMA PRODUCTION; RESISTORS; THIN FILMS; X RADIATION; X-RAY DETECTION

Citation Formats

Ryc, L., Kaczmarczyk, J., Machac, P., Bartnik, A., Mikolajczyk, J., Juha, L., Krasa, J., Pfeifer, M., Ullschmied, J., and Bittner, M. Application of Resistive Bolometer to Measurement of X-Ray Radiation from Laser Plasmas. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2168840.
Ryc, L., Kaczmarczyk, J., Machac, P., Bartnik, A., Mikolajczyk, J., Juha, L., Krasa, J., Pfeifer, M., Ullschmied, J., & Bittner, M. Application of Resistive Bolometer to Measurement of X-Ray Radiation from Laser Plasmas. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2168840.
Ryc, L., Kaczmarczyk, J., Machac, P., Bartnik, A., Mikolajczyk, J., Juha, L., Krasa, J., Pfeifer, M., Ullschmied, J., and Bittner, M. Sun . "Application of Resistive Bolometer to Measurement of X-Ray Radiation from Laser Plasmas". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2168840.
@article{osti_20797915,
title = {Application of Resistive Bolometer to Measurement of X-Ray Radiation from Laser Plasmas},
author = {Ryc, L. and Kaczmarczyk, J. and Machac, P. and Bartnik, A. and Mikolajczyk, J. and Juha, L. and Krasa, J. and Pfeifer, M. and Ullschmied, J. and Bittner, M.},
abstractNote = {A metal resistor thin-film bolometer was fabricated using the micro lithographic method and then applied to measurement of x-ray emission from gas-puff targets in the experiments at 1-kJ PALS laser in Prague. The detection head with the bolometer is equipped with a precise system for its calibration. The bolometer is of 4-{mu}m Au capturing layer and 100 % efficiency up to 5 keV. The lowest measurable flux is 5x10-9 J/cm2.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2168840},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 812,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Sun Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • An absorption method of soft x ray is applied to Heliotron E plasmas for measurement of the electron temperature. Nitrogen gas is used as an absorber for convenience, owing to its accurate, uniform, and easily controllable density. The general feature of the absorption method for measurement of the electron temperature is discussed using a model with two parameters: the generalized thickness of the absorber and the electron temperature. The energy resolution of this method is not sufficient as a general method for spectral analysis. Hence, it is necessary to assume in advance such a model spectrum as consists of bremsstrahlung,more » recombination radiation, and impurity line radiation. Since the spectrum is always assumed before the analysis, we should try to find the origins of deformation of the energy spectrum and to correct the contribution. The effect of line emission from impurity ions to the estimated electron temperature is evaluated as a function of the electron temperature and the energy of the line relative to the generalized absorber thickness used in the measurement. An actual spectrum is measured by a pulse-height analysis (PHA) of the soft x ray. The one clear line, from chlorine, is not significant in the present determination of the electron temperature by the absorption method. Another possible line from iron at energy less than 1 keV is included in the analysis. Using a convenient method for determination of local emissivity from a chord-integrated emissivity, the electron temperature is determined from the local emissivity. The observed broad electron-temperature profile might be an artifact due to recombination radiation of the highly ionized ion diffused out of the hot core of the plasma. It is confirmed that the absorption method gives absolute measurement of the electron temperature at the plasma center, when additional information on impurity lines are given by PHA.« less
  • Plasmas formed by focusing 0.6-J pulses from a 10-Hz Nd:YAG laser onto solid targets were used as soft x-ray sources for lithographic studies. Results of exposing masked photoresists to plasma radiation produced using steel, copper, and tungsten as targets are presented.
  • Soft-x-ray spectra ([lt] 0.5 keV) from subpicosecond-laser-pulse-produced Al plasmas have been measured at a series of intensities up to 10[sup 17] W/cm[sup 2] and different angles of incidence. It was found that the spectra depended strongly on these parameters. Comparison of the spectra produced by [ital p]- and [ital s]-polarized 248 nm radiation showed that not only collisional but also other absorption mechanisms were present. These additional processes affected only the total amount of the generated [ital soft]-x-ray radiation but not the spectral shape and not the electron temperature.
  • Large population inversions have been obtained in Cd and Zn ions using broadband soft-x-ray radiation from laser-produced plasmas to photoionize and thereby remove inner-shell d-electrons from the neutral atoms. This technique has presently produced lasers in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared. The use of optical pumping to transfer the population produced by photoionization to higher lying levels may produce VUV and XUV lasers in the same and other species. Gains as high as 40 cm/sup -1/ and inversion densities as high ad 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -3/ have already been observed. These large inversions suggest that extractable energies approaching 1more » mJ/cm/sup 3/ may be possible for directly-pumped lasers operating in the visible and for transfer-pumped lasers operating at shorter wavelengths.« less
  • Large population inversions have been obtained in Cd and Zn ions using broadband soft-x-ray radiation from laser-produced plasmas to photoionize and thereby remove inner-shell d-electrons from the neutral atoms. This technique has presently produced lasers in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared. The use of optical pumping to transfer the population produced by photoionization to higher lying levels may produce VUV and XUV lasers in the same and other species. Gains as high as 40 cm/sup -1/ and inversion densities as high ad 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -3/ have already been observed. These large inversions suggest that extractable energies approaching 1more » mJ/cm/sup 3/ may be possible for directly-pumped lasers operating in the visible and for transfer-pumped lasers operating at shorter wavelengths.« less