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Title: Localized volume effects for late rectal and anal toxicity after radiotherapy for prostate cancer

Abstract

Purpose: To identify dosimetric parameters derived from anorectal, rectal, and anal wall dose distributions that correlate with different late gastrointestinal (GI) complications after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: In this analysis, 641 patients from a randomized trial (68 Gy vs. 78 Gy) were included. Toxicity was scored with adapted Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG/EORTC) criteria and five specific complications. The variables derived from dose-volume histogram of anorectal, rectal, and anal wall were as follows: % receiving {>=}5-70 Gy (V5-V70), maximum dose (D{sub max}), and mean dose (D{sub mean}). The anus was defined as the most caudal 3 cm of the anorectum. Statistics were done with multivariate Cox regression models. Median follow-up was 44 months. Results: Anal dosimetric variables were associated with RTOG/EORTC Grade {>=}2 (V5-V40, D{sub mean}) and incontinence (V5-V70, D{sub mean}). Bleeding correlated most strongly with anorectal V55-V65, and stool frequency with anorectal V40 and D{sub mean}. Use of steroids was weakly related to anal variables. No volume effect was seen for RTOG/EORTC Grade {>=}3 and pain/cramps/tenesmus. Conclusion: Different volume effects were found for various late GI complications. Therefore, to evaluate the risk of late GI toxicity,more » not only intermediate and high doses to the anorectal wall volume should be taken into account, but also the dose to the anal wall.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [3]
  1. Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
  2. Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands). E-mail: j.lebesque@nki.nl
  3. Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands)
  4. Radiotherapeutic Institute Friesland, Leeuwarden (Netherlands)
  5. Zeeuws Radiotherapeutic Institute, Vlissingen (Netherlands)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20793394
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics; Journal Volume: 64; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2005.10.002; PII: S0360-3016(05)02736-7; Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; CARCINOMAS; PAIN; PROSTATE; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; STEROIDS; TOXICITY

Citation Formats

Peeters, Stephanie T.H., Lebesque, Joos V., Heemsbergen, Wilma D., Putten, Wim L.J. van, Slot, Annerie, Dielwart, Michel F.H., and Koper, Peter C.M.. Localized volume effects for late rectal and anal toxicity after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2005.1.
Peeters, Stephanie T.H., Lebesque, Joos V., Heemsbergen, Wilma D., Putten, Wim L.J. van, Slot, Annerie, Dielwart, Michel F.H., & Koper, Peter C.M.. Localized volume effects for late rectal and anal toxicity after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. United States. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2005.1.
Peeters, Stephanie T.H., Lebesque, Joos V., Heemsbergen, Wilma D., Putten, Wim L.J. van, Slot, Annerie, Dielwart, Michel F.H., and Koper, Peter C.M.. Wed . "Localized volume effects for late rectal and anal toxicity after radiotherapy for prostate cancer". United States. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2005.1.
@article{osti_20793394,
title = {Localized volume effects for late rectal and anal toxicity after radiotherapy for prostate cancer},
author = {Peeters, Stephanie T.H. and Lebesque, Joos V. and Heemsbergen, Wilma D. and Putten, Wim L.J. van and Slot, Annerie and Dielwart, Michel F.H. and Koper, Peter C.M.},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To identify dosimetric parameters derived from anorectal, rectal, and anal wall dose distributions that correlate with different late gastrointestinal (GI) complications after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: In this analysis, 641 patients from a randomized trial (68 Gy vs. 78 Gy) were included. Toxicity was scored with adapted Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG/EORTC) criteria and five specific complications. The variables derived from dose-volume histogram of anorectal, rectal, and anal wall were as follows: % receiving {>=}5-70 Gy (V5-V70), maximum dose (D{sub max}), and mean dose (D{sub mean}). The anus was defined as the most caudal 3 cm of the anorectum. Statistics were done with multivariate Cox regression models. Median follow-up was 44 months. Results: Anal dosimetric variables were associated with RTOG/EORTC Grade {>=}2 (V5-V40, D{sub mean}) and incontinence (V5-V70, D{sub mean}). Bleeding correlated most strongly with anorectal V55-V65, and stool frequency with anorectal V40 and D{sub mean}. Use of steroids was weakly related to anal variables. No volume effect was seen for RTOG/EORTC Grade {>=}3 and pain/cramps/tenesmus. Conclusion: Different volume effects were found for various late GI complications. Therefore, to evaluate the risk of late GI toxicity, not only intermediate and high doses to the anorectal wall volume should be taken into account, but also the dose to the anal wall.},
doi = {10.1016/J.IJROBP.2005.1},
journal = {International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics},
number = 4,
volume = 64,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 15 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Wed Mar 15 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • Purpose: To assess the association between the dose distributions in the rectum and late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG/EORTC), Late Effects of Normal Tissue SOMA, and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 3.0 graded rectal toxicity among patients with prostate cancer treated with RT. Methods and Materials: Included in the study were 124 patients who received three-dimensional conformal RT for prostate cancer to a total dose of 70 Gy in 2-Gy fractions. All patients completed questionnaires regarding rectum complaints before RT and during long-term follow-up. Late rectum Grademore » 2 or worse toxicity, according to RTOG/EORTC, LENT SOMA, and CTCAE v3.0 criteria, was analyzed in relation to rectal dose and volume parameters. Results: Dose-volume thresholds (V40 {>=}65%, V50 {>=}55%, V65 {>=}45%, V70 {>=}20%, and a rectum volume {<=}140 cm{sup 3}), significantly discriminated patients with late Grade 0-1 and Grade 2 or worse rectal toxicity, particularly using the LENT SOMA and CTCAE v3.0 systems. The rectum volume receiving {>=}70 Gy (V70) was most predictive for late Grade 2 or worse rectal toxicity with each of the grading systems. The associations were strongest, however, with use of the LENT SOMA system. Conclusions: Volume effects for late radiation-induced rectal toxicity are present, but their clinical significance depends on the grading system used. This should be taken into account in the interpretation of studies reporting on radiation-induced rectal toxicity.« less
  • Purpose: To report the incidence and predictors of treatment-related toxicity at 10 years after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 1988 and 2000, 1571 patients with stages T1-T3 prostate cancer were treated with 3D-CRT/IMRT with doses ranging from 66 to 81 Gy. The median follow-up was 10 years. Posttreatment toxicities were all graded according to the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Results: The actuarial likelihood at 10 years for the development of Grade {>=}2 GI toxicities was 9%. The use of IMRT significantly reduced the riskmore » of gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities compared with patients treated with conventional 3D-CRT (13% to 5%; p < 0.001). Among patients who experienced acute symptoms the 10-year incidence of late toxicity was 42%, compared with 9% for those who did not experience acute symptoms (p < 0.0001). The 10-year incidence of late Grade {>=}2 genitourinary (GU) toxicity was 15%. Patients treated with 81 Gy (IMRT) had a 20% incidence of GU symptoms at 10 years, compared with a 12% for patient treated to lower doses (p = 0.01). Among patients who had developed acute symptoms during treatment, the incidence of late toxicity at 10 years was 35%, compared with 12% (p < 0.001). The incidence of Grade 3 GI and GU toxicities was 1% and 3%, respectively. Conclusions: Serious late toxicity was unusual despite the delivery of high radiation dose levels in these patients. Higher doses were associated with increased GI and GU Grade 2 toxicities, but the risk of proctitis was significantly reduced with IMRT. Acute symptoms were a precursor of late toxicities in these patients.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the Vienna Rectoscopy Score (VRS) as a feasible and effective tool for detecting and classifying pathologic changes in the rectal mucosa after radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer, and, also, to correlate its findings with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score for late rectal toxicity. Methods and Materials: A total of 486 patients with localized prostate cancer underwent external-beam RT up to 70 or 74 Gy within an Austrian-German prospective multicenter trial. In 166 patients, voluntary rectal sigmoidoscopy was performed before and at 12 and/or 24 months after RT.more » Pathologic findings such as telangiectasia, congested mucosa, and ulcers were graded (Grades 0-3) and summarized according to the VRS. Late rectal side effects (EORTC/RTOG) were documented and correlated with the corresponding VRS. Results: Before RT, 99% had a VRS score of 0. The median follow-up was 40 months. Overall, a late rectal side effects grade or score 1-3 was detected in 43% by EORTC/RTOG compared with 68% by VRS (p < 0.05). Grades 0, 1, 2, and 3 late rectal side effects were found using EORTC/RTOG in 57%, 11%, 28%, and 3%, respectively; the corresponding percentages were 32%, 22%, 32%, and 14% for a VRS of 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively. A significant coherence between the VRS and EORTC/RTOG was found (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The VRS is a feasible and effective tool for describing and classifying pathologic findings in the rectal mucosa after RT within a multicenter trial. The VRS and EORTC/RTOG showed a high coherence. However the VRS was significantly more sensitive.« less
  • Purpose: To determine the predictive risk factors for Grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding after high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) combined with hypofractionated external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer using dose-volume histogram analysis. Methods and Materials: The records of 216 patients treated with HDR-BT combined with EBRT were analyzed. The treatment protocols for HDR-BT were 5 Gy Multiplication-Sign five times in 3 days or 7 Gy Multiplication-Sign three, 10.5 Gy Multiplication-Sign two, or 9 Gy Multiplication-Sign two in 2 days. The EBRT doses ranged from 45 to 51 Gy with a fractional dose of 3 Gy. Results: In 20 patients Grade 2more » or worse rectal bleeding developed, and the cumulative incidence rate was 9% at 5 years. By converting the HDR-BT and EBRT radiation doses into biologic effective doses (BED), the BED{sub 3} at rectal volumes of 5% and 10% in the patients who experienced bleeding were significantly higher than those in the remaining 196 patients. Univariate analysis showed that a higher rectal BED{sub 3-5%} and the use of fewer needles in brachytherapy were correlated with the incidence of bleeding, but BED{sub 3-5%} was found to be the only significant factor on multivariate analysis. Conclusions: The radiation dose delivered to small rectal lesions as 5% is important for predicting Grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding after HDR-BT combined with EBRT for prostate cancer.« less
  • Purpose: To characterize the late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity for prostate cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and propose dose-volume histogram (DVH) guidelines to limit late treatment-related toxicity. Methods and Materials: In this study 296 consecutive men were treated with IMRT for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Most patients received treatment to the prostate with or without proximal seminal vesicles (90%), to a median dose of 76 Gy. Concurrent androgen deprivation therapy was given to 150 men (51%) for a median of 4 months. Late toxicity was defined by Common Toxicity Criteria version 3.0 as greater thanmore » 3 months after radiation therapy completion. Four groupings of DVH parameters were defined, based on the percentage of rectal or bladder tissue receiving 70 Gy (V{sub 70}), 65 Gy (V{sub 65}), and 40 Gy (V{sub 40}). These DVH groupings, as well as clinical and treatment characteristics, were correlated to maximal Grade 2+ GU and GI toxicity. Results: With a median follow-up of 41 months, the 4-year freedom from maximal Grade 2+ late toxicity was 81% and 91% for GU and GI systems, respectively, and by last follow-up, the rates of Grade 2+ GU and GI toxicity were 9% and 5%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, whole-pelvic IMRT was associated with Grade 2+ GU toxicity and age was associated with Grade 2+ GI toxicity. Freedom from Grade 2+ GI toxicity at 4 years was 100% for men with rectal V{sub 70} {<=}10%, V{sub 65} {<=}20%, and V{sub 40} {<=}40%; 92% for men with rectal V{sub 70} {<=}20%, V{sub 65} {<=}40%, and V{sub 40} {<=}80%; and 85% for men exceeding these criteria (p = 0.13). These criteria were more highly associated with GI toxicity in men aged {>=}70 years (p = 0.07). No bladder dose-volume relationships were associated with the risk of GU toxicity. Conclusions: IMRT is associated with low rates of severe GU or GI toxicity after treatment for prostate cancer. Rectal dose constraints may help limit late GI morbidity.« less