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Title: Stereotactic linac-based radiosurgery in the treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations located deep, involving corpus callosum, motor cortex, or brainstem

Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate patient outcome and obliteration rates after radiosurgery (RS) for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) located deep, in the motor cortex or brainstem and those involving corpus callosum. Methods and Materials: This analysis is based on 65 patients. AVM classification according to Spetzler-Martin was 13 patients Grade 2, 39 Grade 3, 12 Grade 4, and 1 Grade 5. Median RS-based AVM score was 1.69. Median single dose was 18 Gy. Mean treatment volume was 5.2 cc (range, 0.2-26.5 cc). Forty patients (62%) experienced intracranial hemorrhage before RS. Median follow-up was 3.0 years. Results: Actuarial complete obliteration rate (CO) was 50% and 65% after 3 and 5 years, respectively. CO was significantly higher in AVM <3 cm (p < 0.02) and after doses >18 Gy (p < 0.009). Annual bleeding risk after RS was 4.7%, 3.4%, and 2.7% after 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. AVM >3 cm (p < 0.01), AVM volume >4 cc (p < 0.009), and AVM score >1.5 (p < 0.02) showed a significant higher bleeding risk. Neurologic dysfunction improved, completely dissolved, or remained stable in 94% of patients. Conclusions: Surgically inaccessible AVM can be successfully treated using RS with acceptable obliteration rates and low riskmore » for late morbidity. The risk of intracranial hemorrhage is reduced after RS and depends on RS-based AVM score.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [2]
  1. Department of Radiotherapy, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany) and Department of RadioOncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany). E-mail: A.Zabel@dkfz-heidelberg.de
  2. Department of RadioOncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)
  3. Department of Radiotherapy, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)
  4. Department of Medical Physics, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20793381
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics; Journal Volume: 64; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2005.09.024; PII: S0360-3016(05)02715-X; Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; HAZARDS; HEMORRHAGE; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; MALFORMATIONS; PATIENTS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; SURGERY

Citation Formats

Zabel-du Bois, Angelika, Milker-Zabel, Stefanie, Huber, Peter, Schlegel, Wolfgang, and Debus, Juergen. Stereotactic linac-based radiosurgery in the treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations located deep, involving corpus callosum, motor cortex, or brainstem. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2005.0.
Zabel-du Bois, Angelika, Milker-Zabel, Stefanie, Huber, Peter, Schlegel, Wolfgang, & Debus, Juergen. Stereotactic linac-based radiosurgery in the treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations located deep, involving corpus callosum, motor cortex, or brainstem. United States. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2005.0.
Zabel-du Bois, Angelika, Milker-Zabel, Stefanie, Huber, Peter, Schlegel, Wolfgang, and Debus, Juergen. Wed . "Stereotactic linac-based radiosurgery in the treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations located deep, involving corpus callosum, motor cortex, or brainstem". United States. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2005.0.
@article{osti_20793381,
title = {Stereotactic linac-based radiosurgery in the treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations located deep, involving corpus callosum, motor cortex, or brainstem},
author = {Zabel-du Bois, Angelika and Milker-Zabel, Stefanie and Huber, Peter and Schlegel, Wolfgang and Debus, Juergen},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To evaluate patient outcome and obliteration rates after radiosurgery (RS) for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) located deep, in the motor cortex or brainstem and those involving corpus callosum. Methods and Materials: This analysis is based on 65 patients. AVM classification according to Spetzler-Martin was 13 patients Grade 2, 39 Grade 3, 12 Grade 4, and 1 Grade 5. Median RS-based AVM score was 1.69. Median single dose was 18 Gy. Mean treatment volume was 5.2 cc (range, 0.2-26.5 cc). Forty patients (62%) experienced intracranial hemorrhage before RS. Median follow-up was 3.0 years. Results: Actuarial complete obliteration rate (CO) was 50% and 65% after 3 and 5 years, respectively. CO was significantly higher in AVM <3 cm (p < 0.02) and after doses >18 Gy (p < 0.009). Annual bleeding risk after RS was 4.7%, 3.4%, and 2.7% after 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. AVM >3 cm (p < 0.01), AVM volume >4 cc (p < 0.009), and AVM score >1.5 (p < 0.02) showed a significant higher bleeding risk. Neurologic dysfunction improved, completely dissolved, or remained stable in 94% of patients. Conclusions: Surgically inaccessible AVM can be successfully treated using RS with acceptable obliteration rates and low risk for late morbidity. The risk of intracranial hemorrhage is reduced after RS and depends on RS-based AVM score.},
doi = {10.1016/J.IJROBP.2005.0},
journal = {International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics},
number = 4,
volume = 64,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 15 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Wed Mar 15 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • Purpose: We investigate retrospectively clinical outcome after radiosurgery (RS) or hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HSRT) in patients with large cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Methods and Materials: This analysis is based on 48 patients with cerebral AVM greater than 4 cm treated with HSRT or RS at our institution. Fifteen patients received HSRT, with 26 Gy median total dose in 4 to 5 fractions, and 33 patients received RS with 17 Gy median total dose in 4 to 5 fractions. Median target volume was 27 cc in HSRT and 7 cc in RS; median maximum diameter was 6 cm and 5 cm,more » respectively. Seventeen patients experienced intracranial hemorrhage before treatment. Median follow-up was 2.6 years. Results: The 3-year and 4-year actuarial complete obliteration (CO) after HSRT was 17% and 33% and after RS was 47% and 60%, respectively. Actuarial CO was higher in AVMs less than 5 cm (66% vs. 37% after 4 years). Intracranial hemorrhage after HSRT occurred in 3 of 15 patients after 18 months median, and after RS in 7 of 33 patients after 17 months median. Bleeding risk was significantly higher in patients with prior hemorrhage (p < 0.04). Preexisting neurologic dysfunction improved/dissolved in 50% and remained stable in 45%. Conclusions: Large AVMs need a long time period to obliterate and show a high bleeding risk. Multimodal treatment strategies are required to reduce treatment volume before radiotherapy.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate retrospectively clinical outcome and obliteration rates after linac-based radiosurgery (RS) in children with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Methods and Materials: Between 1996 and 2002, 22 children with cerebral AVM were treated at our institution. Mean age at treatment was 11.8 years (range, 4.4-16.4 years). Classification according to Spetzler-Martin was 1 child grade I (4%), 7 grade II (32%), 12 grade III (56%), 1 grade IV (4%), and 1 grade V (4%). Median single dose was 18 Gy/80%-isodose. Median AVM volume was 4.2 mL (range, 0.4-26.5 mL). Median RS-based AVM-score was 1.07 (range, 0.61-3.55). Fifty-nine percent of childrenmore » experienced intracranial hemorrhage before RS. Median follow-up was 3.1 years (range, 1.7-7.3 years). Results: Actuarial complete obliteration rate (CO) was 54% after 3 years and 65% after 4 years, respectively. Median time interval to CO was 27.1 months. Intracranial hemorrhage after RS was seen in five children after median 13.9 months. Annual bleeding risk was 9.1% after 1 year and 13.6% after 2 years. Maximum diameter {>=}3 cm and AVM-volume {>=}6 mL were significant predictors for intracranial hemorrhage. Neurologic deficits were improved/completely dissolved in 58% of children and remained stable in 42%. No new onset of neurologic dysfunction was seen after RS. Conclusions: RS is safe and effective in pediatric cerebral AVM with high obliteration rates. Size and volume of AVM are significant predictors for intracranial bleeding. The same treatment guidelines as in adults should be applied. Careful long-term follow-up observation is required after RS from long life expectation.« less
  • Purpose: We investigate patient outcome, risk of hemorrhage, and factors affecting obliteration after LINAC-based radiosurgery (RS) for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) treated after partial embolization. Methods and Materials: This analysis is based on 50 patients treated after prior embolization. According to the Spetzler-Martin criteria the AVM classification was as follows: 9 patients, Grade I (18%); 19, Grade II (38%); 18, Grade III (36%); and 4, Grade IV (8%). Median RS-based AVM score was 1.41. Median single dose was 18 Gy/ 80% isodose (range, 15-22 Gy) and median AVM volume was 4.0 cc (range, 0.2-22.6 cc). In all, 34 patients (68%)more » experienced hemorrhage before RS. Median follow-up was 3.1 year (range, 8.5 months to 15 years). Results: Actuarial complete obliteration rate was 67% after 3 years and 78% after 4 years. The complete obliteration rate was significantly higher in AVM <3 cm (92% vs. 60%, p < 0.01) and in AVM Spetzler-Martin Grade I/II (90% vs. 59%, p < 0,01). Intracranial hemorrhage after RS was seen in 6 patients (12%) after 8.5 months median. Annual bleeding risk was 7.9% after 1 year and 2.2% after 2 years. It was found that AVM diameter {>=}3 cm (p < 0.006), AVM volume {>=}4 cc (p < 0.01), AVM score {>=}1.5 (p < 0.03), and single dose <18 Gy (p < 0.03) were associated with a significant higher bleeding risk. Conclusions: The rate of obliteration after RS in AVM treated after prior partial embolization depends on size as well as Spetzler-Martin grade. The risk of intracranial hemorrhage is not increased after RS and depends on AVM score, size, and volume, as well as on applied single dose.« less
  • Purpose: We evaluate patient-, angioma-, and treatment-specific factors for successful obliteration of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) to develop a new appropriate score to predict patient outcome after linac-based radiosurgery (RS). Methods and Materials: This analysis in based on 293 patients with cerebral AVM. Mean age at treatment was 38.8 years (4-73 years). AVM classification according Spetzler-Martin was 55 patients Grade I (20.5%), 114 Grade II (42.5%), 79 Grade III (29.5%), 19 Grade IV (7.1%), and 1 Grade V (0.4%). Median maximum AVM diameter was 3.0 cm (range, 0.3-10 cm). Median dose prescribed to the 80% isodose was 18 Gy (range,more » 12-22 Gy). Eighty-five patients (29.1%) had prior partial embolization; 141 patients (51.9%) experienced intracranial hemorrhage before RS. Median follow-up was 4.2 years. Results: Age at treatment, maximum diameter, nidus volume, and applied dose were significant factors for successful obliteration. Under presumption of proportional hazard in the dose range between 12 and 22 Gy/80% isodose, an increase of obliteration rate of approximately 25% per Gy was seen. On the basis of multivariate analysis, a prediction score was calculated including AVM maximum diameter and age at treatment. The prediction error up to the time point 8 years was 0.173 for the Heidelberg score compared with the Kaplan-Meier value of 0.192. An increase of the score of 1 point results in a decrease of obliteration chance by a factor of 0.447. Conclusion: The proposed score is linac-based radiosurgery-specific and easy to handle to predict patient outcome. Further validation on an independent patient cohort is necessary.« less
  • Purpose: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an effective alternative to microsurgical resection or embolization for definitive treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is the gold standard for pretreatment diagnosis and characterization of vascular anatomy, but requires rigid frame (skull) immobilization when used in combination with SRS. With the advent of advanced proton and image-guided photon delivery systems, SRS treatment is increasingly migrating to frameless platforms, which are incompatible with frame-based DSA. Without DSA as the primary image, target definition may be less than optimal, in some cases precluding the ability to treat with a frameless system. This articlemore » reports a novel solution. Methods and Materials: Fiducial markers are implanted into the patient's skull before angiography. Angiography is performed according to the standard clinical protocol, but, in contrast to the previous practice, without the rigid frame. Separate images of a specially designed localizer box are subsequently obtained. A target volume projected on DSA can be transferred to the localizer system in three dimensions, and in turn be transferred to multiple CT slices using the implanted fiducials. Combined with other imaging modalities, this 'virtual frame' approach yields a highly precise treatment plan that can be delivered by frameless SRS technologies. Results: Phantom measurements for point and volume targets have been performed. The overall uncertainty of placing a point target to CT is 0.4 mm. For volume targets, deviation of the transformed contour from the target CT image is within 0.6 mm. The algorithm and software are robust. The method has been applied clinically, with reliable results. Conclusions: A novel and reproducible method for frameless SRS of AVMs has been developed that enables the use of DSA without the requirement for rigid immobilization. Multiple pairs of DSA can be used for better conformality. Further improvement, including using nonimplanted fiducials, is potentially feasible.« less