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Title: Simultaneous beam geometry and intensity map optimization in intensity-modulated radiation therapy

Abstract

Purpose: In current intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan optimization, the focus is on either finding optimal beam angles (or other beam delivery parameters such as field segments, couch angles, gantry angles) or optimal beam intensities. In this article we offer a mixed integer programming (MIP) approach for simultaneously determining an optimal intensity map and optimal beam angles for IMRT delivery. Using this approach, we pursue an experimental study designed to (a) gauge differences in plan quality metrics with respect to different tumor sites and different MIP treatment planning models, and (b) test the concept of critical-normal-tissue-ring-a tissue ring of 5 mm thickness drawn around the planning target volume (PTV)-and its use for designing conformal plans. Methods and Materials: Our treatment planning models use two classes of decision variables to capture the beam configuration and intensities simultaneously. Binary (0/1) variables are used to capture 'on' or 'off' or 'yes' or 'no' decisions for each field, and nonnegative continuous variables are used to represent intensities of beamlets. Binary and continuous variables are also used for each voxel to capture dose level and dose deviation from target bounds. Treatment planning models were designed to explicitly incorporate the following planning constraints: (a) upper/lower/mean dose-basedmore » constraints, (b) dose-volume and equivalent-uniform-dose (EUD) constraints for critical structures, (c) homogeneity constraints (underdose/overdose) for PTV, (d) coverage constraints for PTV, and (e) maximum number of beams allowed. Within this constrained solution space, five optimization strategies involving clinical objectives were analyzed: optimize total intensity to PTV, optimize total intensity and then optimize conformity, optimize total intensity and then optimize homogeneity, minimize total dose to critical structures, minimize total dose to critical structures and optimize conformity simultaneously. We emphasize that the objectives that include optimizing conformity make use of the critical-normal-tissue-ring. Three tumor sites: head-and-neck, pediatric brain, and prostate are used for comparison. Results: The critical-normal-tissue-ring acts as a good device for enforcing conformity. Trends in the characteristics and quality of plans resulting from each model were observed. Attempts to reduce dose to critical structures tend to worsen PTV conformity (1.542 to 3.092) and homogeneity (1.223 to 1.984), depending on the relative size and spatial distance of the critical structures to the PTV. When the critical structures are relatively small compared with the PTV (as in the case for the pediatric brain tumor, where each is less than 15% in volume), dose reduction to critical structures is accompanied by much worse scores in conformity (2.482) and homogeneity (1.984). When the critical structures are larger, as in the case of head-and-neck ({approx}50%), the conformity and homogeneity deterioration is less significant (1.542 and 1.239, respectively). There is a clear tradeoff between homogeneity, conformity, and minimum dose to organs at risk (OARs). For head-and-neck and pediatric brain tumor, the model that minimizes total dose to critical structures and optimizes conformity simultaneously offers a compromise among these factors, resulting in reduced critical structure dose with conformal and homogeneous plans. In the prostate case, the tumor is smaller than the two large nearby critical structures, and all models provide very homogeneous PTV dose distribution. However, minimizing dose to critical structures worsens conformity, as it spreads the radiation to the area surrounding the PTV. The maximum dose to the critical structures also increases slightly. Compared with plans used in the clinic which generally have uniformly spaced beam angles, the optimal clinically acceptable plans obtained via the methods herein do not have equispaced beams. The optimal beam angles returned appear to be nonintuitive, and depend on PTV size and geometry and the s patial relationship between the tumor and critical structures. Conclusions: The MIP model described allows simultaneous optimization over the space of beamlet fluence weights and beam and couch angles. Based on experiments with tumor data, this approach can return good plans that are clinically acceptable and practical. This work distinguishes itself from recent IMRT research in several ways. First, in previous methods beam angles are selected before intensity map optimization. Herein, we employ 0/1 variables to model the set of candidate beams, and thereby allow the optimization process itself to select optimal beams. Second, instead of incorporating dose-volume criteria within the objective function as in previous work, herein, a combination of discrete and continuous variables associated with each voxel provides a mechanism to strictly enforce dose-volume criteria within the constraints. Third, using the construct of critical-normal-tissue-ring within the objective function can enhance the achievement of conformal plans. Based on the three tumor sites considered, it appears that volume and spatial geometry with respect to the PTV are important factors to consider when selecting objectives to optimize, and in estimating how well suited a particular model is for achieving a specified goal.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2]
  1. Center for Operations Research in Medicine, School of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). E-mail: evakylee@isye.gatech.edu
  2. Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20788298
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics; Journal Volume: 64; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2005.08.023; PII: S0360-3016(05)02407-7; Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; BRAIN; CARCINOMAS; HEAD; NECK; OPTIMIZATION; PLANNING; PROSTATE; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Lee, Eva K., Fox, Tim, and Crocker, Ian. Simultaneous beam geometry and intensity map optimization in intensity-modulated radiation therapy. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2005.0.
Lee, Eva K., Fox, Tim, & Crocker, Ian. Simultaneous beam geometry and intensity map optimization in intensity-modulated radiation therapy. United States. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2005.0.
Lee, Eva K., Fox, Tim, and Crocker, Ian. Sun . "Simultaneous beam geometry and intensity map optimization in intensity-modulated radiation therapy". United States. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2005.0.
@article{osti_20788298,
title = {Simultaneous beam geometry and intensity map optimization in intensity-modulated radiation therapy},
author = {Lee, Eva K. and Fox, Tim and Crocker, Ian},
abstractNote = {Purpose: In current intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan optimization, the focus is on either finding optimal beam angles (or other beam delivery parameters such as field segments, couch angles, gantry angles) or optimal beam intensities. In this article we offer a mixed integer programming (MIP) approach for simultaneously determining an optimal intensity map and optimal beam angles for IMRT delivery. Using this approach, we pursue an experimental study designed to (a) gauge differences in plan quality metrics with respect to different tumor sites and different MIP treatment planning models, and (b) test the concept of critical-normal-tissue-ring-a tissue ring of 5 mm thickness drawn around the planning target volume (PTV)-and its use for designing conformal plans. Methods and Materials: Our treatment planning models use two classes of decision variables to capture the beam configuration and intensities simultaneously. Binary (0/1) variables are used to capture 'on' or 'off' or 'yes' or 'no' decisions for each field, and nonnegative continuous variables are used to represent intensities of beamlets. Binary and continuous variables are also used for each voxel to capture dose level and dose deviation from target bounds. Treatment planning models were designed to explicitly incorporate the following planning constraints: (a) upper/lower/mean dose-based constraints, (b) dose-volume and equivalent-uniform-dose (EUD) constraints for critical structures, (c) homogeneity constraints (underdose/overdose) for PTV, (d) coverage constraints for PTV, and (e) maximum number of beams allowed. Within this constrained solution space, five optimization strategies involving clinical objectives were analyzed: optimize total intensity to PTV, optimize total intensity and then optimize conformity, optimize total intensity and then optimize homogeneity, minimize total dose to critical structures, minimize total dose to critical structures and optimize conformity simultaneously. We emphasize that the objectives that include optimizing conformity make use of the critical-normal-tissue-ring. Three tumor sites: head-and-neck, pediatric brain, and prostate are used for comparison. Results: The critical-normal-tissue-ring acts as a good device for enforcing conformity. Trends in the characteristics and quality of plans resulting from each model were observed. Attempts to reduce dose to critical structures tend to worsen PTV conformity (1.542 to 3.092) and homogeneity (1.223 to 1.984), depending on the relative size and spatial distance of the critical structures to the PTV. When the critical structures are relatively small compared with the PTV (as in the case for the pediatric brain tumor, where each is less than 15% in volume), dose reduction to critical structures is accompanied by much worse scores in conformity (2.482) and homogeneity (1.984). When the critical structures are larger, as in the case of head-and-neck ({approx}50%), the conformity and homogeneity deterioration is less significant (1.542 and 1.239, respectively). There is a clear tradeoff between homogeneity, conformity, and minimum dose to organs at risk (OARs). For head-and-neck and pediatric brain tumor, the model that minimizes total dose to critical structures and optimizes conformity simultaneously offers a compromise among these factors, resulting in reduced critical structure dose with conformal and homogeneous plans. In the prostate case, the tumor is smaller than the two large nearby critical structures, and all models provide very homogeneous PTV dose distribution. However, minimizing dose to critical structures worsens conformity, as it spreads the radiation to the area surrounding the PTV. The maximum dose to the critical structures also increases slightly. Compared with plans used in the clinic which generally have uniformly spaced beam angles, the optimal clinically acceptable plans obtained via the methods herein do not have equispaced beams. The optimal beam angles returned appear to be nonintuitive, and depend on PTV size and geometry and the s patial relationship between the tumor and critical structures. Conclusions: The MIP model described allows simultaneous optimization over the space of beamlet fluence weights and beam and couch angles. Based on experiments with tumor data, this approach can return good plans that are clinically acceptable and practical. This work distinguishes itself from recent IMRT research in several ways. First, in previous methods beam angles are selected before intensity map optimization. Herein, we employ 0/1 variables to model the set of candidate beams, and thereby allow the optimization process itself to select optimal beams. Second, instead of incorporating dose-volume criteria within the objective function as in previous work, herein, a combination of discrete and continuous variables associated with each voxel provides a mechanism to strictly enforce dose-volume criteria within the constraints. Third, using the construct of critical-normal-tissue-ring within the objective function can enhance the achievement of conformal plans. Based on the three tumor sites considered, it appears that volume and spatial geometry with respect to the PTV are important factors to consider when selecting objectives to optimize, and in estimating how well suited a particular model is for achieving a specified goal.},
doi = {10.1016/J.IJROBP.2005.0},
journal = {International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics},
number = 1,
volume = 64,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • This study aims to determine the optimal beam design among various combinations of field numbers and beam trajectories for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) technique for the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). We used 10 fields with gantry angles of 155°, 130°, 75°, 25°, 0° L, 0° R, 335°, 285°, 230°, and 205° denoted as F10. To decrease doses in the spinal cord, the F10 technique was designed by featuring 2 pairs of split-opposed beam fields at 155° to 335° and 205° to 25°, as well as one pair of manually split beam fields at 0°.more » The F10 technique was compared with 4 other common field arrangements: F7E, 7 fields with 50° equally spaced gantry angles; F7, the basis of F10 with 155°, 130°, 75°, 0°, 285°, 230°, and 205°; F9E, 9 fields with 40° equally spaced gantry angles; and FP, 7 posterior fields with 180°, 150°, 120°, 90°, 270°, 240°, and 210°. For each individual case of 10 patients, the customized constraints derived after optimization with the standard F10 technique were applied to 4 other field arrangements. The 4 new optimized plans of each individual case were normalized to achieve the same coverage of planning target volume (PTV){sub 63} {sub Gy} as that of the standard F10 technique. The F10 field arrangement exhibited the best coverage in PTV{sub 70} {sub Gy} and the least mean dose in the trachea-esophagus region. Furthermore, the F10 field arrangement demonstrated the highest level of conformity in the low-dose region and the least monitor unit. The F10 field arrangement performed more outstandingly than the other field arrangements in PTV{sub 70} {sub Gy} coverage and spared the central organ. This arrangement also exhibited the highest conformity and delivery efficiency. The F10 technique is recommended as the standard beam geometry for the SIB-IMRT of NPC.« less
  • Purpose: To optimize beam angles and reduce the number of beams used for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: An exhaustive search scheme was used to perform beam angle optimization (BAO) for IMRT of NSCLC. This approach involved intercomparison of all possible beam angle combinations and selection of the best angles based on the scores or costs of the objective functions used in the treatment plan optimization. Ten Stage III NSCLC cases were selected to evaluate the BAO algorithm and dosimetry benefits of IMRT-BAO. IMRT plans using five or seven coplanar beams were optimizedmore » and compared with those using nine equal-spaced beams. Results of BAO were also compared between plans using different numbers of beams with or without fluence modulation. Results: Each anatomic structure, e.g., tumor or lung, had its own preferred beam angles. Thus, BAO required appropriate balance of competing objective functions. Plans using fewer angles (five or seven beams) could achieve plan quality similar to those using nine equal-spaced beams, however with reduced monitor units and field segments. The number of beams used for the treatment (five vs. seven) and the fluence modulation (open or IMRT beams) did not have a significant impact on the results of the BAO. Conclusions: Use of fewer beams (e.g., five) for lung IMRT could result in acceptable plan quality but improved treatment efficiency. A multiresolution search scheme could be developed for BAO using fewer and nonmodulated beams to reduce the computation cost of BAO.« less
  • A novel, anatomic beam orientation optimization (A-BOO) algorithm is proposed to significantly improve conventional intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The A-BOO algorithm vectorially analyses polygonal surface mesh data of contoured patient anatomy. Five optimal (5-opt) deliverable beam orientations are selected based on (1) tangential orientation bisecting the target and adjacent organ's-at-risk (OARs) to produce precipitous dose gradients between them and (2) parallel incidence with polygon features of the target volume to facilitate conformal coverage. The 5-opt plans were compared to standard five, seven, and nine equiangular-spaced beam plans (5-equi, 7-equi, 9-equi) for: (1) gastric, (2) Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) P-0126more » prostate, and (3) RTOG H-0022 oropharyngeal (stage-III, IV) cancer patients. In the gastric case, the noncoplanar 5-opt plan reduced the right kidney V 20 Gy by 32.2%, 23.2%, and 20.6% compared to plans with five, seven, and nine equiangular-spaced beams. In the prostate case, the coplanar 5-opt plan produced similar rectal sparing as the 7-equi and 9-equi plans with a reduction of the V 75, V 70, V 65, and V 60 Gy of 2.4%, 5.3%, 7.0%, and 9.5% compared to the 5-equi plan. In the stage-III and IV oropharyngeal cases, the noncoplanar 5-opt plan substantially reduced the V 30 Gy and mean dose to the contralateral parotid compared to plans with five, seven, and nine equiangular-spaced beams: (stage-III) 7.1%, 5.2%, 6.8%, and 5.1, 3.5, 3.7 Gy and (stage-IV) 10.2%, 10.2%, 9.8% and 7.0, 7.1, 7.2 Gy. The geometry-based A-BOO algorithm has been demonstrated to be robust for application to a variety of IMRT treatment sites. Beam orientations producing significant improvements in OAR sparing over conventional IMRT can be automatically produced in minutes compared to hours with existing dose-based beam orientation optimization methods.« less
  • Purpose: Creating an improved BAO can decrease the amount of time a dosimetrist spends on making a treatment plan, improve the treatment quality and enhance the tools an inexperienced dosimetrist can use to develop planning techniques. Methods: Using empirical data created by experienced dosimetrists from 69 patients treated for lung cancer, the most frequently used gantry angles were applied to four different regions in each lung to gather an optimal set of fields that could be used to treat future lung cancer patients. This method, given the moniker FAU BAO, is compared in 7 plans created with the Eclipse BAOmore » choosing 5 fields and 9 fields. Results: The results show that the conformality index improved by 30% or 3% when using the 5 and 9 fields. The conformation number was better by 12% from the 5 fields and 9% from the 9 fields. The organs at risk (OAR) were overall more protected to produce fewer nonstochastic effects from the radiation treatment with the FAU BAO. Conclusion: Empirical methods for beam angle optimization is a viable method for IMRT treatment planning techniques.« less
  • Purpose: To provide a multicriteria optimization algorithm for intensity modulated radiation therapy using pencil proton beam scanning. Methods: Intensity modulated radiation therapy using pencil proton beam scanning requires efficient optimization algorithms to overcome the uncertainties in the Bragg peaks locations. This work is focused on optimization algorithms that are based on Monte Carlo simulation of the treatment planning and use the weights and the dose volume histogram (DVH) control points to steer toward desired plans. The proton beam treatment planning process based on single objective optimization (representing a weighted sum of multiple objectives) usually leads to time-consuming iterations involving treatmentmore » planning team members. We proved a time efficient multicriteria optimization algorithm that is developed to run on NVIDIA GPU (Graphical Processing Units) cluster. The multicriteria optimization algorithm running time benefits from up-sampling of the CT voxel size of the calculations without loss of fidelity. Results: We will present preliminary results of Multicriteria optimization for intensity modulated proton therapy based on DVH control points. The results will show optimization results of a phantom case and a brain tumor case. Conclusion: The multicriteria optimization of the intensity modulated radiation therapy using pencil proton beam scanning provides a novel tool for treatment planning. Work support by a grant from Varian Inc.« less