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Title: Quantitative x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: Quadrupole effects, shake-up, Shirley background, and relative sensitivity factors from a database of true x-ray photoelectron spectra

Abstract

An analysis is provided of the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) intensities measured in the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) XPS database for 46 solid elements. This present analysis does not change our previous conclusions concerning the excellent correlation between experimental intensities, following deconvolving the spectra with angle-averaged reflection electron energy loss data, and the theoretical intensities involving the dipole approximation using Scofield's cross sections. Here, more recent calculations for cross sections by Trzhaskovskaya et al. involving quadrupole terms are evaluated and it is shown that their cross sections diverge from the experimental database results by up to a factor of 5. The quadrupole angular terms lead to small corrections that are close to our measurement limit but do appear to be supported in the present analysis. Measurements of the extent of shake-up for the 46 elements broadly agree with the calculations of Yarzhemsky et al. but not in detail. The predicted constancy in the shake-up contribution by Yarzhemsky et al. implies that the use of the Shirley background will lead to a peak area that is a constant fraction of the true peak area including the shake-up intensities. However, the measured variability of the shake-up contribution makes the Shirley background invalidmore » for quantification except for situations where the sensitivity factors are from reference samples similar to those being analyzed.« less

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. Quality of Life Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20788159
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics; Journal Volume: 73; Journal Issue: 17; Other Information: DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.73.174113; (c) 2006 The American Physical Society; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; APPROXIMATIONS; CORRECTIONS; CORRELATIONS; CROSS SECTIONS; DIPOLES; ELECTRON SPECTRA; ELECTRONS; QUADRUPOLES; REFLECTION; SENSITIVITY; SOLIDS; X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY

Citation Formats

Seah, M. P., and Gilmore, I. S.. Quantitative x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: Quadrupole effects, shake-up, Shirley background, and relative sensitivity factors from a database of true x-ray photoelectron spectra. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVB.73.1.
Seah, M. P., & Gilmore, I. S.. Quantitative x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: Quadrupole effects, shake-up, Shirley background, and relative sensitivity factors from a database of true x-ray photoelectron spectra. United States. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVB.73.1.
Seah, M. P., and Gilmore, I. S.. Mon . "Quantitative x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: Quadrupole effects, shake-up, Shirley background, and relative sensitivity factors from a database of true x-ray photoelectron spectra". United States. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVB.73.1.
@article{osti_20788159,
title = {Quantitative x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: Quadrupole effects, shake-up, Shirley background, and relative sensitivity factors from a database of true x-ray photoelectron spectra},
author = {Seah, M. P. and Gilmore, I. S.},
abstractNote = {An analysis is provided of the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) intensities measured in the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) XPS database for 46 solid elements. This present analysis does not change our previous conclusions concerning the excellent correlation between experimental intensities, following deconvolving the spectra with angle-averaged reflection electron energy loss data, and the theoretical intensities involving the dipole approximation using Scofield's cross sections. Here, more recent calculations for cross sections by Trzhaskovskaya et al. involving quadrupole terms are evaluated and it is shown that their cross sections diverge from the experimental database results by up to a factor of 5. The quadrupole angular terms lead to small corrections that are close to our measurement limit but do appear to be supported in the present analysis. Measurements of the extent of shake-up for the 46 elements broadly agree with the calculations of Yarzhemsky et al. but not in detail. The predicted constancy in the shake-up contribution by Yarzhemsky et al. implies that the use of the Shirley background will lead to a peak area that is a constant fraction of the true peak area including the shake-up intensities. However, the measured variability of the shake-up contribution makes the Shirley background invalid for quantification except for situations where the sensitivity factors are from reference samples similar to those being analyzed.},
doi = {10.1103/PHYSREVB.73.1},
journal = {Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics},
number = 17,
volume = 73,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2006},
month = {Mon May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2006}
}