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Title: Ion debris characterization from a z-pinch extreme ultraviolet light source

Abstract

An XTREME Technologies XTS 13-35 extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light source creates a xenon z pinch that generates 13.5 nm light. Due to the near x-ray nature of light at this wavelength, extremely smooth metal mirrors for photon collection must be employed. These are exposed to the source debris. Dissolution of the z-pinch gas column results in high-energy ion and neutral release throughout the chamber that can have adverse effects on mirror surfaces. The XTREME commercial EUV emission diagnostic chamber was designed to maximize diagnostic access to the light and particulate emissions from the z pinch. The principal investigation is characterization of the debris field and the erosive effects on optics present. Light emission from the z pinch is followed by ejection of multiply charged ions and fast neutral particles that make up an erosive flux to chamber surfaces. Attenuation of this erosive flux to optical surfaces is attempted by inclusion of a debris mitigation tool consisting of foil traps and neutral buffer gas flow. Characterization of the z-pinch ejecta is performed with a spherical sector energy analyzer (ESA) that diagnoses fast ion species by energy-to-charge ratio using ion time-of-flight (ITOF) analysis. This is used to evaluate the debris tool's abilitymore » to divert direct fast ions from impact on optic surfaces. The ITOF-ESA is used to characterize both the energy and angular distribution of the direct fast ions. Xe{sup +} up to Xe{sup +4} ions have been characterized along with Ar{sup +} (the buffer gas used), W{sup +}, Mo{sup +}, Si{sup +}, Fe{sup +}, and Ni{sup +}. Energy spectra for these species from 0.5 up to 13 keV are defined at 20 deg. and 30 deg. from the pinch centerline in the chamber. Results show a drop in ion flux with angular increase. The dominant species is Xe{sup +} which peaks around 8 keV. Ion flux measured against buffer gas flow rate suggests that the direct fast ion population is significantly attenuated through increases in buffer gas flow rate. This does not address momentum transfer from scattered ions or fast neutral particles. These results are discussed in the context of other investigations on the effects of total particle flux to normal incidence mirror samples exposed for 1x10{sup 7} pulses. The samples (Si/Mo multilayer with Ru capping layer, Au, C, Mo, Pd, Ru, and Si) were exposed to the source plasma with 75% argon flow rate in the debris mitigation tool and surface metrology was performed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray reflectivity, and scanning electron microscopy to analyze erosion effects on mirrors. These results are compared to the measured direct ion debris field.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Plasma-Materials Interaction Group, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20787968
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 99; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2175471; (c) 2006 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; ARGON; ARGON IONS; ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY; ENERGY SPECTRA; EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION; FLOW RATE; GAS FLOW; INDIUM IONS; IRON IONS; LIGHT SOURCES; MOLYBDENUM IONS; MOMENTUM TRANSFER; NEUTRAL PARTICLES; NICKEL IONS; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; TIME-OF-FLIGHT METHOD; TUNGSTEN IONS; WALL EFFECTS; X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY; XENON IONS

Citation Formats

Antonsen, Erik L., Thompson, Keith C., Hendricks, Matthew R., Alman, Darren A., Jurczyk, Brian E., and Ruzic, D.N. Ion debris characterization from a z-pinch extreme ultraviolet light source. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2175471.
Antonsen, Erik L., Thompson, Keith C., Hendricks, Matthew R., Alman, Darren A., Jurczyk, Brian E., & Ruzic, D.N. Ion debris characterization from a z-pinch extreme ultraviolet light source. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2175471.
Antonsen, Erik L., Thompson, Keith C., Hendricks, Matthew R., Alman, Darren A., Jurczyk, Brian E., and Ruzic, D.N. Wed . "Ion debris characterization from a z-pinch extreme ultraviolet light source". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2175471.
@article{osti_20787968,
title = {Ion debris characterization from a z-pinch extreme ultraviolet light source},
author = {Antonsen, Erik L. and Thompson, Keith C. and Hendricks, Matthew R. and Alman, Darren A. and Jurczyk, Brian E. and Ruzic, D.N.},
abstractNote = {An XTREME Technologies XTS 13-35 extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light source creates a xenon z pinch that generates 13.5 nm light. Due to the near x-ray nature of light at this wavelength, extremely smooth metal mirrors for photon collection must be employed. These are exposed to the source debris. Dissolution of the z-pinch gas column results in high-energy ion and neutral release throughout the chamber that can have adverse effects on mirror surfaces. The XTREME commercial EUV emission diagnostic chamber was designed to maximize diagnostic access to the light and particulate emissions from the z pinch. The principal investigation is characterization of the debris field and the erosive effects on optics present. Light emission from the z pinch is followed by ejection of multiply charged ions and fast neutral particles that make up an erosive flux to chamber surfaces. Attenuation of this erosive flux to optical surfaces is attempted by inclusion of a debris mitigation tool consisting of foil traps and neutral buffer gas flow. Characterization of the z-pinch ejecta is performed with a spherical sector energy analyzer (ESA) that diagnoses fast ion species by energy-to-charge ratio using ion time-of-flight (ITOF) analysis. This is used to evaluate the debris tool's ability to divert direct fast ions from impact on optic surfaces. The ITOF-ESA is used to characterize both the energy and angular distribution of the direct fast ions. Xe{sup +} up to Xe{sup +4} ions have been characterized along with Ar{sup +} (the buffer gas used), W{sup +}, Mo{sup +}, Si{sup +}, Fe{sup +}, and Ni{sup +}. Energy spectra for these species from 0.5 up to 13 keV are defined at 20 deg. and 30 deg. from the pinch centerline in the chamber. Results show a drop in ion flux with angular increase. The dominant species is Xe{sup +} which peaks around 8 keV. Ion flux measured against buffer gas flow rate suggests that the direct fast ion population is significantly attenuated through increases in buffer gas flow rate. This does not address momentum transfer from scattered ions or fast neutral particles. These results are discussed in the context of other investigations on the effects of total particle flux to normal incidence mirror samples exposed for 1x10{sup 7} pulses. The samples (Si/Mo multilayer with Ru capping layer, Au, C, Mo, Pd, Ru, and Si) were exposed to the source plasma with 75% argon flow rate in the debris mitigation tool and surface metrology was performed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray reflectivity, and scanning electron microscopy to analyze erosion effects on mirrors. These results are compared to the measured direct ion debris field.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2175471},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 99,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 15 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Wed Mar 15 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • A capillary Z-pinch discharge light source for EUV lithography has been developed. Our device is equipped with a water-cooled ceramic capillary and electrodes, and a solid state pulsed power generator. A stacked static induction thyristors are used as switching elements, which enable high repetition rate operation of pulsed power supply. A magnetic switch is connected in series, which not only assists the semiconductor switch but also provides a preionization current. In the present study, EUV radiation emitted from pinching plasma in a xenon-filled capillary was quantitatively measured using an in-band calorimeter. Time-integrated in-band source image was also observed using amore » pinhole camera system. Furthermore, new electrode system using plasma jet has been developed.« less
  • Properties of ion debris emitted from laser-produced mass-limited tin plasmas have been experimentally investigated for an application to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. Simple scaling laws to design the mass-limited target, which is a key technique to minimize contamination of the first EUV collection mirror, is discussed. The measured energy spectrum of the tin ions is consistent with a prediction by the isothermal expansion model. The average charge state of the tin ions is evaluated to be +5 at 180 mm away from the plasma, and higher-energy ions have higher charge state. It was found that not only EUV emission butmore » also ion energy spectra are sensitively affected by the target mass limitation.« less
  • The behavior of debris generated from a laser-produced plasma (LPP) for the extreme ultraviolet light source at 13.5 nm has been studied using a laser induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging system. Tin (Sn) LPPs were produced by irradiating a flat Sn plate and Sn thin films perpendicularly with a Nd:YAG laser beam. When a thin Sn film was used as a target material, the depletion of the Sn atoms was clearly observed along the Nd:YAG laser beam. The LIF system was also used for visualizing the sputtering process of a mirror substrate by the fast ions generated from the plasma.
  • In this paper, experimental results are presented for the spatial and energy distributions of charge-discriminated Sn ions ejected from laser-produced plasmas. The plasmas were formed on solid, planar Sn targets, irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser. Ions were investigated using a calibrated electrostatic sector analyzer, scanning an energy-to-charge ratio range of 0.22 to 2.2 keV/e for emission angles between 20 and 80 degrees relative to target normal. Results were obtained for three laser power densities, in the region suitable for inducing significant extreme ultraviolet emission, of the order 1.5-8.1 x 10{sup 11} W/cm{sup 2}. The fully differentiated data were found tomore » be well characterized by Gaussian fits, which allowed trends in the emission profiles to be readily quantified. Ions of set energy and charge were observed to possess a preferential angle of emission, the superposition of which yields a physical basis for the total angular emission observed previously and in this work. The experimental results obtained have been related to physical processes within the plasma that influence the energy and angle of ejection of ions from laser produced plasmas.« less
  • Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission from a gas jet z-pinch source has been examined by employing a photodiode and pinhole camera. Visible images of the pinched plasma have been also recorded. A current pulse of 10 kA is used to heat the gas jet, which emits radiation around 13.5 nm. Experimental parameters such as electrode separation and gas flow rate are varied to optimize EUV emission. The maximum EUV energy is obtained for 12 mm electrode separation and 20 Torr xenon pressure and it is estimated to 10.95 mJ/sr per 2% bandwidth per pulse. The presence of gas curtain improves EUVmore » emission by 30%.« less