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Title: The formation of metallic nanoparticles in single crystal CaF{sub 2} under 157 nm excimer laser irradiation

Abstract

Single crystal calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) is an important material for vacuum-ultraviolet optical components. Unfortunately, all metal halides tend to form defects when exposed to energetic particles and laser radiation, and these defects can degrade optical performance. Here we examine the consequences of exposing CaF{sub 2} to 157 nm excimer laser radiation and show that several tens of thousands of pulses at fluences near 1 J/cm{sup 2} can color the material. Absorption spectra of the exposed material confirm the formation of metallic calcium nanoparticles similar to those produced by other forms of energetic radiation. The rate of nanoparticle formation depends on the bulk temperature and displays a local maximum near 50 deg. C. Absorption measurements at 157 nm display a transient absorption component that grows during prolonged irradiation and disappears on time scales of several minutes after irradiation ceases. The implications of these effects in optical components are discussed.

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. Physics Department, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20787930
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 99; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2177931; (c) 2006 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; ABSORPTION; ABSORPTION SPECTRA; CALCIUM; CALCIUM FLUORIDES; EXCIMER LASERS; IRRADIATION; LASER RADIATION; MONOCRYSTALS; NANOSTRUCTURES; PARTICLES; POINT DEFECTS; ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION; ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA

Citation Formats

Cramer, L.P., Langford, S.C., and Dickinson, J.T. The formation of metallic nanoparticles in single crystal CaF{sub 2} under 157 nm excimer laser irradiation. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2177931.
Cramer, L.P., Langford, S.C., & Dickinson, J.T. The formation of metallic nanoparticles in single crystal CaF{sub 2} under 157 nm excimer laser irradiation. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2177931.
Cramer, L.P., Langford, S.C., and Dickinson, J.T. Wed . "The formation of metallic nanoparticles in single crystal CaF{sub 2} under 157 nm excimer laser irradiation". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2177931.
@article{osti_20787930,
title = {The formation of metallic nanoparticles in single crystal CaF{sub 2} under 157 nm excimer laser irradiation},
author = {Cramer, L.P. and Langford, S.C. and Dickinson, J.T.},
abstractNote = {Single crystal calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) is an important material for vacuum-ultraviolet optical components. Unfortunately, all metal halides tend to form defects when exposed to energetic particles and laser radiation, and these defects can degrade optical performance. Here we examine the consequences of exposing CaF{sub 2} to 157 nm excimer laser radiation and show that several tens of thousands of pulses at fluences near 1 J/cm{sup 2} can color the material. Absorption spectra of the exposed material confirm the formation of metallic calcium nanoparticles similar to those produced by other forms of energetic radiation. The rate of nanoparticle formation depends on the bulk temperature and displays a local maximum near 50 deg. C. Absorption measurements at 157 nm display a transient absorption component that grows during prolonged irradiation and disappears on time scales of several minutes after irradiation ceases. The implications of these effects in optical components are discussed.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2177931},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 5,
volume = 99,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}