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Title: Many-body interactions in a sample of ultracold Rydberg atoms with varying dimensions and densities

Abstract

Ultracold highly excited atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) are strongly coupled by the dipole-dipole interaction. We have investigated the importance of many-body effects by controlling the dimensionality and density of the excited sample. We excited three different cylindrical volumes of atoms in the MOT to Rydberg states. At small radius, where the sample is nearly one-dimensional, many-body interactions are suppressed. At larger radii, the sample becomes three-dimensional and many-body effects are apparent.

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. Department of Physics, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20786931
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physical Review. A; Journal Volume: 73; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.73.032725; (c) 2006 The American Physical Society; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS; ATOMS; CYLINDRICAL CONFIGURATION; DENSITY; DIPOLES; MAGNETO-OPTICAL EFFECTS; MANY-BODY PROBLEM; ONE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS; RYDBERG STATES; THREE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS; TRAPS

Citation Formats

Carroll, Thomas J., Sunder, Shubha, and Noel, Michael W.. Many-body interactions in a sample of ultracold Rydberg atoms with varying dimensions and densities. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVA.73.0.
Carroll, Thomas J., Sunder, Shubha, & Noel, Michael W.. Many-body interactions in a sample of ultracold Rydberg atoms with varying dimensions and densities. United States. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVA.73.0.
Carroll, Thomas J., Sunder, Shubha, and Noel, Michael W.. Wed . "Many-body interactions in a sample of ultracold Rydberg atoms with varying dimensions and densities". United States. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVA.73.0.
@article{osti_20786931,
title = {Many-body interactions in a sample of ultracold Rydberg atoms with varying dimensions and densities},
author = {Carroll, Thomas J. and Sunder, Shubha and Noel, Michael W.},
abstractNote = {Ultracold highly excited atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) are strongly coupled by the dipole-dipole interaction. We have investigated the importance of many-body effects by controlling the dimensionality and density of the excited sample. We excited three different cylindrical volumes of atoms in the MOT to Rydberg states. At small radius, where the sample is nearly one-dimensional, many-body interactions are suppressed. At larger radii, the sample becomes three-dimensional and many-body effects are apparent.},
doi = {10.1103/PHYSREVA.73.0},
journal = {Physical Review. A},
number = 3,
volume = 73,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 15 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Wed Mar 15 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • We develop a theoretical approach for the dynamics of Rydberg excitations in ultracold gases,with a realistically large number of atoms. We rely on the reduction of the single-atom Bloch equations to rate equations, which is possible under various experimentally relevant conditions. Here, we explicitly refer to a two-step excitation scheme. We discuss the conditions under which our approach is valid by comparing the results with the solution of the exact quantum master equation for two interacting atoms. Concerning the emergence of an excitation blockade in a Rydberg gas, our results are in qualitative agreement with experiment. Possible sources of quantitativemore » discrepancy are carefully examined. Based on the two-step excitation scheme, we predict the occurrence of an antiblockade effect and propose possible ways to detect this excitation enhancement experimentally in an optical lattice, as well as in the gas phase.« less
  • We propose to utilize density-density correlations in the image of an expanding gas cloud to probe complex many-body states of trapped ultracold atoms. In particular, we show how this technique can be used to detect superfluidity of fermionic gases and to study spin correlations of multicomponent atoms in optical lattices. The feasibility of the method is investigated by analysis of the relevant signal to noise ratio including experimental imperfections.
  • We present a method to control the shape and character of the interaction potential between cold atomic gases by weakly dressing the atomic ground state with a Rydberg level. For increasing particle densities, a crossover takes place from a two-particle interaction into a collective many-body interaction, where the dipole-dipole or van der Waals blockade phenomenon between the Rydberg levels plays a dominant role. We study the influence of these collective interaction potentials on a Bose-Einstein condensate and present the optimal parameters for its experimental detection.
  • Previous resonant dipole-dipole energy-transfer experiments of cold Rydberg gases [Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 249 (1998); Mourachko et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 253 (1998)] have been interpreted as providing evidence of many-body, as opposed to purely binary, effects. Here we separate two-body and many-body interactions by introducing an additional Rydberg state, which does not participate directly in the energy-transfer process, but is strongly coupled to one of the final states. We observe broadening of the energy-transfer resonances due to this added Rydberg state, which clearly demonstrates the many-body nature of the dipole-dipole interactions in such a system.
  • No abstract prepared.