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Title: Estrogenic compounds inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication in mouse Leydig TM3 cells

Abstract

Some estrogenic compounds are reported to cause testicular disorders in humans and/or experimental animals by direct action on Leydig cells. In carcinogenesis and normal development, gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) plays an essential role in maintaining homeostasis. In this study, we examine the effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES, a synthetic estrogen), 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}, a natural estrogen), and genistein (GEN, a phytoestrogen) on GJIC between mouse Leydig TM3 cells using Lucifer yellow microinjection. The three compounds tested produced GJIC inhibition in the TM3 cells after 24 h. Gradually, 10 {mu}M DES began to inhibit GJIC for 24 h and this effect was observed until 72 h. On the other hand, both 20 {mu}M E{sub 2} and 25 {mu}M GEN rapidly inhibited GJIC in 6 h and 2 h, respectively. The effects continued until 24 h, but weakened by 72 h. Furthermore, a combined effect at {mu}M level between DES and E{sub 2} on GJIC inhibition was observed, but not between GEN and E{sub 2}. DES and E{sub 2} showed GJIC inhibition at low dose levels (nearly physiological estrogen levels) after 72 h, but GEN did not. DES-induced GJIC inhibition at 10 pM and 10 {mu}M was completely counteracted by ICI 182,780more » (ICl), an estrogen receptor antagonist. On the other hand, the inhibitory effects on GJIC with E{sub 2} (10 pM and 20 {mu}M) and GEN (25 {mu}M) were partially blocked by ICI or calphostin C, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, and were completely blocked by the combination of ICI and calphostin C. These results demonstrate that DES inhibits GJIC between Leydig cells via the estrogen receptor (ER), and that E{sub 2} and GEN inhibit GJIC via ER and PKC. These estrogenic compounds may have different individual nongenotoxic mechanism including PKC pathway on testicular carcinogenesis or development.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Department of Bioenvironmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan) and Toxicology Laboratory, Pharmaceuticals Research Unit, Research and Development Division, Mitsubishi Pharma Corporation, Kisarazu 292-0818 (Japan) and Environmental Health Science Project for Future Generations, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan). E-mail: Iwase.Yumiko@mg.m-pharma.co.jp
  2. Department of Bioenvironmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan) and Environmental Health Science Project for Future Generations, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan). E-mail: fukata@faculty.chiba-u.jp
  3. Department of Bioenvironmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan) and Environmental Health Science Project for Future Generations, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan) and Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, Chiba University, Kashiwa 277-0882 (Japan). E-mail: cmori@faculty.chiba-u.jp
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20783470
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology; Journal Volume: 212; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2005.08.005; PII: S0041-008X(05)00510-7; Copyright (c) 2005 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; CARCINOGENESIS; ESTRADIOL; HOMEOSTASIS; INHIBITION; MICE; RECEPTORS; TESTES

Citation Formats

Iwase, Yumiko, Fukata, Hideki, and Mori, Chisato. Estrogenic compounds inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication in mouse Leydig TM3 cells. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2005.08.005.
Iwase, Yumiko, Fukata, Hideki, & Mori, Chisato. Estrogenic compounds inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication in mouse Leydig TM3 cells. United States. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2005.08.005.
Iwase, Yumiko, Fukata, Hideki, and Mori, Chisato. Mon . "Estrogenic compounds inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication in mouse Leydig TM3 cells". United States. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2005.08.005.
@article{osti_20783470,
title = {Estrogenic compounds inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication in mouse Leydig TM3 cells},
author = {Iwase, Yumiko and Fukata, Hideki and Mori, Chisato},
abstractNote = {Some estrogenic compounds are reported to cause testicular disorders in humans and/or experimental animals by direct action on Leydig cells. In carcinogenesis and normal development, gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) plays an essential role in maintaining homeostasis. In this study, we examine the effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES, a synthetic estrogen), 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}, a natural estrogen), and genistein (GEN, a phytoestrogen) on GJIC between mouse Leydig TM3 cells using Lucifer yellow microinjection. The three compounds tested produced GJIC inhibition in the TM3 cells after 24 h. Gradually, 10 {mu}M DES began to inhibit GJIC for 24 h and this effect was observed until 72 h. On the other hand, both 20 {mu}M E{sub 2} and 25 {mu}M GEN rapidly inhibited GJIC in 6 h and 2 h, respectively. The effects continued until 24 h, but weakened by 72 h. Furthermore, a combined effect at {mu}M level between DES and E{sub 2} on GJIC inhibition was observed, but not between GEN and E{sub 2}. DES and E{sub 2} showed GJIC inhibition at low dose levels (nearly physiological estrogen levels) after 72 h, but GEN did not. DES-induced GJIC inhibition at 10 pM and 10 {mu}M was completely counteracted by ICI 182,780 (ICl), an estrogen receptor antagonist. On the other hand, the inhibitory effects on GJIC with E{sub 2} (10 pM and 20 {mu}M) and GEN (25 {mu}M) were partially blocked by ICI or calphostin C, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, and were completely blocked by the combination of ICI and calphostin C. These results demonstrate that DES inhibits GJIC between Leydig cells via the estrogen receptor (ER), and that E{sub 2} and GEN inhibit GJIC via ER and PKC. These estrogenic compounds may have different individual nongenotoxic mechanism including PKC pathway on testicular carcinogenesis or development.},
doi = {10.1016/j.taap.2005.08.005},
journal = {Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology},
number = 3,
volume = 212,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2006},
month = {Mon May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2006}
}
  • Involvement of gap-junctional intercellular communication in the stimulation of growth was investigated in quiescent 3T3-L1 cells. When the cells in monolayer were growth-arrested by culture in a low concentration of calf serum, addition of dibutyryl cyclic AMP enhanced dye-coupling and suppressed the enhancement of DNA synthesis, induced by calf serum, in quiescent cells. 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) suppressed dye-coupling in quiescent cells and enhanced DNA synthesis in both quiescent and serum-treated cells. When about 5000 cells were cultured in contact to form a colony, growth arrest of the cells was observed in the central region of such colonies rather than in themore » peripheral region, but addition of calf serum induced DNA synthesis in the cells in both the peripheral and central regions of the colonies. Addition of TPA enhanced serum-induced DNA synthesis in the cells in the central region of colonies rather than in the peripheral region. These results suggest that the ability of quiescent cells to escape from growth arrest is inversely correlated to the extent of gap-junctional intercellular communication.« less
  • In order to study the effects of an activated H-ras-1 oncogene on gap-junctional intercellular communication, the authors introduced the EJ/T24 H-ras-1 oncogene into cells of the epithelial Clone 9-3 cell line. Gap-junctional intercellular communication was significantly reduced in H-ras-1-transformed Clone 9-3 derivatives; this result shows that transformation by the activated H-ras-1 oncogene can inhibit gap-junctional intercellular communication. They postulate that the activated H-ras-1 oncogene product could mediate this effect through a change in the phosphorylation of the major gap-junction protein.
  • 3-Chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), 3,4-dichloro-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MCA), and 3-chloro-4-methyl-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MCF) promote foci formation in the two-stage cell transformation assay in vitro. These chlorohydroxyfuranones (CHFs) and their structural congener 3-chloro-4-(chloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (CMCF) inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in Balb/c 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. In the present study, the effects of MX, MCA, CMCF, and MCF on GJIC were evaluated in liver cells (WB-F344 rat liver epithelial cells), the target cells of MX-induced carcinogenicity, using the scrape-loading dye transfer technique. The CHFs inhibited GJIC after 1 h exposure in a concentration-dependent fashion. The order of potency was MX > CMCF {approx} MCA > MCF. Inmore » terms of the lowest observed effective concentrations, the difference in the potency was about 27-fold (MX 1.875 {mu}M, MCF 50 {mu}M). After a prolonged exposure period (12 h), the inhibition of GJIC by MX and CMCF remained stable, but MCA and MCF exhibited increasing inhibitory effects. After removal of the CHFs, the GJIC slowly recovered. At the transcriptional level, CHFs caused essentially no change in the level of connexin43 (Cx43) mRNA. Preincubation of cells with the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor did not modify the response, but the specific MEK 1 inhibitor PD98059 decreased substantially the inhibition of GJIC by all four CHFs. Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathway was necessary for inhibition of GJIC. CHFs did not increase the basal phosphorylation state of the Cx43 protein, but all CHFs caused a concentration-dependent degradation of the Cx43 protein. The results indicate that all the studied CHFs inhibit GJIC in WB-F344 cells by altering Cx43 expression.« less
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  • Cadmium (Cd) is known to induce hepatotoxicity, yet the underlying mechanism of how this occurs is not fully understood. In this study, Cd-induced apoptosis was demonstrated in rat liver cells (BRL 3A) with apoptotic nuclear morphological changes and a decrease in cell index (CI) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The role of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and autophagy in Cd-induced apoptosis was investigated. Cd significantly induced GJIC inhibition as well as downregulation of connexin 43 (Cx43). The prototypical gap junction blocker carbenoxolone disodium (CBX) exacerbated the Cd-induced decrease in CI. Cd treatment was also found to cause autophagy,more » with an increase in mRNA expression of autophagy-related genes Atg-5, Atg-7, Beclin-1, and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) conversion from cytosolic LC3-I to membrane-bound LC3-II. The autophagic inducer rapamycin (RAP) prevented the Cd-induced CI decrease, while the autophagic inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) caused a further reduction in CI. In addition, CBX promoted Cd-induced autophagy, as well as changes in expression of Atg-5, Atg-7, Beclin-1 and LC3. CQ was found to block the Cd-induced decrease in Cx43 and GJIC inhibition, whereas RAP had opposite effect. These results demonstrate that autophagy plays a protective role during Cd-induced apoptosis in BRL 3A cells during 6 h of experiment, while autophagy exacerbates Cd-induced GJIC inhibition which has a negative effect on cellular fate. - Highlights: • GJIC and autophagy is crucial for biological processes. • Cd exposure causes GJIC inhibition and autophagy increase in BRL 3A cells. • Autophagy protects Cd induced BRL 3A cells apoptosis at an early stage. • Autophagy exacerbates Cd-induced GJIC inhibition. • GJIC plays an important role in autophagy induced cell death or survival.« less