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Title: Diabetic mice are protected from normally lethal nephrotoxicity of S-1,2-dichlorovinyl-L-cysteine (DCVC): role of nephrogenic tissue repair

Abstract

Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic (DB) rats are protected from nephrotoxicity of gentamicin, cisplatin and mercuric chloride, although the mechanisms remain unclear. Ninety percent of DB mice receiving a LD90 dose (75 mg/kg, ip) of S-1,2-dichlorovinyl-L-cysteine (DCVC) survived in contrast to only 10% of the nondiabetic (NDB) mice surviving the same dose. We tested the hypothesis that the mechanism of protection is upregulated tissue repair. In the NDB mice, DCVC produced steep temporal increases in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and plasma creatinine, which were associated with proximal tubular cell (PTC) necrosis, acute renal failure (ARF), and death within 48 h. In contrast, in the DB mice, BUN and creatinine increased less steeply, declining after 36 h to completely resolve by 96 h. HPLC analysis of plasma and urine revealed that DB did not alter the toxicokinetics of DCVC. Furthermore, activity of renal cysteine conjugate {beta}-lyase, the enzyme that bioactivates DCVC, was unaltered in DB mice, undermining the possibility of lower bioactivation of DCVC leading to lower injury. [3H]-thymidine pulse labeling and PCNA analysis indicated an early onset and sustained nephrogenic tissue repair in DCVC-treated DB mice. BRDU immunohistochemistry revealed a fourfold increase in the number of cells in S-phase in the DBmore » kidneys even without exposure to DCVC. Blocking the entry of cells into S-phase by antimitotic intervention using colchicine abolished stimulated nephrogenic tissue repair and nephroprotection. These findings suggest that preplacement of S-phase cells in the kidney due to diabetes is critical in mitigating the progression of DCVC-initiated renal injury by upregulation of tissue repair, leading to survival of the DB mice by avoiding acute renal failure.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [4]
  1. Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Louisiana at Monroe, 700 University Avenue, Monroe, LA 71209-0470 (United States)
  2. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States)
  3. Toxicologic Pathology Associates, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 7207 (United States)
  4. Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Louisiana at Monroe, 700 University Avenue, Monroe, LA 71209-0470 (United States). E-mail: mehendale@ulm.edu
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20783437
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology; Journal Volume: 211; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2005.07.015; PII: S0041-008X(05)00418-7; Copyright (c) 2005 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BIOLOGICAL REPAIR; BLOOD; BUDR; COLCHICINE; CREATININE; CYSTEINE; EOSIN; HEMATOXYLIN; HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY; KIDNEYS; MICE; NECROSIS; PERCHLORIC ACID; RATS; STREPTOZOCIN; THYMIDINE; UREA

Citation Formats

Dnyanmote, Ankur V., Sawant, Sharmilee P., Lock, Edward A., Latendresse, John R., Warbritton, Alan A., and Mehendale, Harihara M.. Diabetic mice are protected from normally lethal nephrotoxicity of S-1,2-dichlorovinyl-L-cysteine (DCVC): role of nephrogenic tissue repair. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2005.07.015.
Dnyanmote, Ankur V., Sawant, Sharmilee P., Lock, Edward A., Latendresse, John R., Warbritton, Alan A., & Mehendale, Harihara M.. Diabetic mice are protected from normally lethal nephrotoxicity of S-1,2-dichlorovinyl-L-cysteine (DCVC): role of nephrogenic tissue repair. United States. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2005.07.015.
Dnyanmote, Ankur V., Sawant, Sharmilee P., Lock, Edward A., Latendresse, John R., Warbritton, Alan A., and Mehendale, Harihara M.. Wed . "Diabetic mice are protected from normally lethal nephrotoxicity of S-1,2-dichlorovinyl-L-cysteine (DCVC): role of nephrogenic tissue repair". United States. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2005.07.015.
@article{osti_20783437,
title = {Diabetic mice are protected from normally lethal nephrotoxicity of S-1,2-dichlorovinyl-L-cysteine (DCVC): role of nephrogenic tissue repair},
author = {Dnyanmote, Ankur V. and Sawant, Sharmilee P. and Lock, Edward A. and Latendresse, John R. and Warbritton, Alan A. and Mehendale, Harihara M.},
abstractNote = {Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic (DB) rats are protected from nephrotoxicity of gentamicin, cisplatin and mercuric chloride, although the mechanisms remain unclear. Ninety percent of DB mice receiving a LD90 dose (75 mg/kg, ip) of S-1,2-dichlorovinyl-L-cysteine (DCVC) survived in contrast to only 10% of the nondiabetic (NDB) mice surviving the same dose. We tested the hypothesis that the mechanism of protection is upregulated tissue repair. In the NDB mice, DCVC produced steep temporal increases in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and plasma creatinine, which were associated with proximal tubular cell (PTC) necrosis, acute renal failure (ARF), and death within 48 h. In contrast, in the DB mice, BUN and creatinine increased less steeply, declining after 36 h to completely resolve by 96 h. HPLC analysis of plasma and urine revealed that DB did not alter the toxicokinetics of DCVC. Furthermore, activity of renal cysteine conjugate {beta}-lyase, the enzyme that bioactivates DCVC, was unaltered in DB mice, undermining the possibility of lower bioactivation of DCVC leading to lower injury. [3H]-thymidine pulse labeling and PCNA analysis indicated an early onset and sustained nephrogenic tissue repair in DCVC-treated DB mice. BRDU immunohistochemistry revealed a fourfold increase in the number of cells in S-phase in the DB kidneys even without exposure to DCVC. Blocking the entry of cells into S-phase by antimitotic intervention using colchicine abolished stimulated nephrogenic tissue repair and nephroprotection. These findings suggest that preplacement of S-phase cells in the kidney due to diabetes is critical in mitigating the progression of DCVC-initiated renal injury by upregulation of tissue repair, leading to survival of the DB mice by avoiding acute renal failure.},
doi = {10.1016/j.taap.2005.07.015},
journal = {Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology},
number = 2,
volume = 211,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a well-known carcinogen in rodents and concerns exist regarding its potential carcinogenicity in humans. Oxidative metabolites of TCE, such as dichloroacetic acid (DCA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCA), are thought to be hepatotoxic and carcinogenic in mice. The reactive products of glutathione conjugation, such as S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC), and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl) glutathione (DCVG), are associated with renal toxicity in rats. Recently, we developed a new analytical method for simultaneous assessment of these TCE metabolites in small-volume biological samples. Since important gaps remain in our understanding of the pharmacokinetics of TCE and its metabolites, we studied a time-course of DCA, TCA,more » DCVG and DCVG formation and elimination after a single oral dose of 2100 mg/kg TCE in male B6C3F1 mice. Based on systemic concentration-time data, we constructed multi-compartment models to explore the kinetic properties of the formation and disposition of TCE metabolites, as well as the source of DCA formation. We conclude that TCE-oxide is the most likely source of DCA. According to the best-fit model, bioavailability of oral TCE was {approx} 74%, and the half-life and clearance of each metabolite in the mouse were as follows: DCA: 0.6 h, 0.081 ml/h; TCA: 12 h, 3.80 ml/h; DCVG: 1.4 h, 16.8 ml/h; DCVC: 1.2 h, 176 ml/h. In B6C3F1 mice, oxidative metabolites are formed in much greater quantities ({approx} 3600 fold difference) than glutathione-conjugative metabolites. In addition, DCA is produced to a very limited extent relative to TCA, while most of DCVG is converted into DCVC. These pharmacokinetic studies provide insight into the kinetic properties of four key biomarkers of TCE toxicity in the mouse, representing novel information that can be used in risk assessment.« less
  • N-Acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (NA-DCVC) has been detected in the urine of humans exposed to trichloroethylene and its related sulfoxide, N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (NA-DCVCS), has been detected as hemoglobin adducts in blood of rats dosed with S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC) or S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (DCVCS). Because the in vivo nephrotoxicity of NA-DCVCS was unknown, in this study, male Sprague–Dawley rats were dosed (i.p.) with 230 μmol/kg b.w. NA-DCVCS or its potential precursors, DCVCS or NA-DCVC. At 24 h post treatment, rats given NA-DCVC or NA-DCVCS exhibited kidney lesions and effects on renal function distinct from those caused by DCVCS. NA-DCVC and NA-DCVCS primarily affected the cortico-medullary proximalmore » tubules (S{sub 2}–S{sub 3} segments) while DCVCS primarily affected the outer cortical proximal tubules (S{sub 1}–S{sub 2} segments). When NA-DCVCS or DCVCS was incubated with GSH in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 at 37 °C, the corresponding glutathione conjugates were detected, but NA-DCVC was not reactive with GSH. Because NA-DCVCS exhibited a longer half-life than DCVCS and addition of rat liver cytosol enhanced GSH conjugate formation, catalysis of GSH conjugate formation by the liver could explain the lower toxicity of NA-DCVCS in comparison with DCVCS. Collectively, these results provide clear evidence that NA-DCVCS formation could play a significant role in DCVC, NA-DCVC, and trichloroethylene nephrotoxicity. They also suggest a role for hepatic metabolism in the mechanism of NA-DCVC nephrotoxicity. - Highlights: ► NA-DCVCS and NA-DCVC toxicity are distinct from DCVCS toxicity. ► NA-DCVCS readily reacts with GSH to form mono- and di-GSH conjugates. ► Liver glutathione S-transferases enhance NA-DCVCS GSH conjugate formation. ► Renal localization of lesions suggests a role for NA-DCVCS in TCE nephrotoxicity.« less
  • An important step in understanding the mechanism underlying the tubular specificity of the nephrotoxicity of toxic cysteine conjugates is to identify the rate-limiting steps in their activation. The rate-limiting steps in the activation of toxic cysteine conjugates were characterized using isolated proximal tubules from the rat and 35S-labeled S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC) and N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (NAC-DCVC) as model compounds. The accumulation by tubules of 35S radiolabel from both DCVC and NAC-DCVC was time and temperature dependent and was mediated by both Na+-dependent and independent processes. Kinetic studies with DCVC in the presence of sodium revealed the presence of two components with apparent Kmmore » and Vmax values of (1) 46 microM and 0.21 nmol/mg min and (2) 2080 microM and 7.3 nmol/mg.min. NAC-DVVC uptake was via a single system with apparent Km and Vmax values of 157 microM and 0.65 nmol/mg.min, respectively. Probenecid, an inhibitor of the renal organic anion transport system, inhibited accumulation of radiolabel from NAC-DCVC, but not from DCVC. The covalent binding of 35S label to cellular macromolecules was much greater from (35S)DCVC than from NAC-(35S)DCVC. Analysis of metabolites showed that a substantial amount of the cellular NAC-(35S)DCVC was unmetabolized while (35S)DCVC was rapidly metabolized to bound 35S-labeled material and unidentified products. The data suggest that DCVC is rapidly metabolized following transport, but that activation of NAC-DCVC depends on a slower rate of deacetylation. The results are discussed with regard to the segment specificity of cysteine conjugate toxicity and the role of disposition in vivo in the nephrotoxicity of glutathione conjugates.« less
  • An attempt to prepare pure tritiated s-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)/sub L/- cysteine (DCVC) by exposing an authentic specimen of this compound to tritium gas by the Wilzbach procedure failed. From the product formed, DCVC was isolated which had the correct physicochemical properties but low, if any, radioactivity; it contained radioactive impurities from which it could not be separated by the methods used. Tritiation of pure /sub L/-cystine by the same procedure afforded a specimen which, after extensive purification, contained most of the radioactivity in the form of /sub L/-cystine, and two minor radioactive contaminants. After reduction with sodium in liquid ammonia, treatment withmore » trichloroethylene, and purification, it afforded tritiated DCVC with a specific activity of 4.92 mu c/mmole. During this synthesis about two thirds of the radioactivity were lost, presumably through exchange in liquid ammonia. (auth)« less
  • Previously we have shown that 90% of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type-1 diabetic (DB) mice survive from acute renal failure (ARF) and death induced by a normally LD{sub 9} dose (75 mg/kg, i.p.) of the nephrotoxicant S-1,2-dichlorovinyl-L-cysteine (DCVC). This remarkable protection is due to a combination of slower progression of DCVC-initiated renal injury and increased compensatory nephrogenic tissue repair in the DB kidneys. BRDU immunohistochemistry revealed that the DB condition led to 4-fold higher number of proximal tubular cells (PTC) entering S-phase of cell cycle. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that DB-induced augmentation of PTC into S-phase is accompaniedmore » by overexpression of the calpain-inhibitor calpastatin, which endogenously prevents the progression of DCVC-initiated renal injury mediated by the calpain escaping out of damaged PTCs. Immunohistochemical detection of renal calpain and its activity in the urine, over a time course after treatment with the LD{sub 9} dose of DCVC, indicated progressive increase in leakage of calpain into the extracellular spaces of the injured PTCs of the non-diabetic (NDB) kidneys as compared to the DB kidneys. Calpastatin expression was minimally detected in the NDB kidneys, using immunohistochemistry, over the time course. On the other hand, consistently higher number of tubules in the DB kidney showed calpastatin expression over the time course. The lower leakage of calpain in the DB kidneys was commensurate with constitutively higher expression of calpastatin in the S-phase-laden PTCs of these mice. To test the protective role of newly divided/dividing PTCs, DB mice were given the anti-mitotic agent colchicine (CLC) (2 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg, i.p., on days 8 and 10 after STZ injection) prior to challenge with a LD{sub 9} dose of DCVC, which led to 100% mortality by 48 h. Mortality was due to rapid progression of DCVC-initiated renal injury, suggesting that newly divided/dividing cells are instrumental in mitigating the progression of DCVC-initiated renal injury in DB. The anti-mitotic effect of CLC in DB kidney is associated with lower expression of calpastatin and higher leakage of calpain in the injured tubules. These findings suggest that constitutively higher cell division in the DB kidney is associated with overexpression of calpastatin, which reduces the progression of DCVC-initiated renal injury mediated by calpain on the one hand and accelerates nephrogenic tissue repair on the other, thereby restoring renal structure and function.« less