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Title: Nanosecond time scale, high power electrical wire explosion in water

Abstract

Experimental and magnetohydrodynamic simulation results of nanosecond time scale underwater electrical explosions of Al, Cu, and W wires are presented. A water forming line generator with current amplitude up to 100 kA was used. The maximum current rise rate and maximum Joule heating power achieved during wire explosions were dI/dt{<=}500 A/ns and 6 GW, respectively. Extremely high energy deposition of up to 60 times the atomization enthalpy was registered compared to the best reported result of 20 times the atomization enthalpy for energy deposition with a vacuum wire explosion. Discharge channel evolution and surface temperature were analyzed by streak shadow imaging and by a fast photodiode with a set of interference filters, respectively. A 1D magnetohydrodynamic simulation demonstrated good agreement with experimental parameters such as discharge channel current, voltage, radius, and temperature. Material conductivity was calculated to produce the best correlation between the simulated and experimentally obtained voltage. It is shown that material conductivity may significantly vary as a function of energy deposition rate.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. Physics Department, Technion, 32000 Haifa (Israel)
  2. (Russian Federation)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20782752
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physics of Plasmas; Journal Volume: 13; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2188085; (c) 2006 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; ALUMINIUM; ATOMIZATION; COPPER; CORRELATIONS; ELECTRIC CURRENTS; ELECTRIC DISCHARGES; ELECTRIC POTENTIAL; ELECTRON TEMPERATURE; ENERGY DEPENDENCE; ENTHALPY; EXPLODING WIRES; EXPLOSIONS; FILTERS; ION TEMPERATURE; JOULE HEATING; MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS; PLASMA; PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS; PLASMA SIMULATION; SURFACES; THERMODYNAMICS; TUNGSTEN; UNDERWATER; WATER

Citation Formats

Grinenko, A., Krasik, Ya.E., Efimov, S., Fedotov, A., Gurovich, V.Tz., Oreshkin, V.I., and Institute of High Current Electronics, SB RAN, 634055 Tomsk. Nanosecond time scale, high power electrical wire explosion in water. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2188085.
Grinenko, A., Krasik, Ya.E., Efimov, S., Fedotov, A., Gurovich, V.Tz., Oreshkin, V.I., & Institute of High Current Electronics, SB RAN, 634055 Tomsk. Nanosecond time scale, high power electrical wire explosion in water. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2188085.
Grinenko, A., Krasik, Ya.E., Efimov, S., Fedotov, A., Gurovich, V.Tz., Oreshkin, V.I., and Institute of High Current Electronics, SB RAN, 634055 Tomsk. Sat . "Nanosecond time scale, high power electrical wire explosion in water". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2188085.
@article{osti_20782752,
title = {Nanosecond time scale, high power electrical wire explosion in water},
author = {Grinenko, A. and Krasik, Ya.E. and Efimov, S. and Fedotov, A. and Gurovich, V.Tz. and Oreshkin, V.I. and Institute of High Current Electronics, SB RAN, 634055 Tomsk},
abstractNote = {Experimental and magnetohydrodynamic simulation results of nanosecond time scale underwater electrical explosions of Al, Cu, and W wires are presented. A water forming line generator with current amplitude up to 100 kA was used. The maximum current rise rate and maximum Joule heating power achieved during wire explosions were dI/dt{<=}500 A/ns and 6 GW, respectively. Extremely high energy deposition of up to 60 times the atomization enthalpy was registered compared to the best reported result of 20 times the atomization enthalpy for energy deposition with a vacuum wire explosion. Discharge channel evolution and surface temperature were analyzed by streak shadow imaging and by a fast photodiode with a set of interference filters, respectively. A 1D magnetohydrodynamic simulation demonstrated good agreement with experimental parameters such as discharge channel current, voltage, radius, and temperature. Material conductivity was calculated to produce the best correlation between the simulated and experimentally obtained voltage. It is shown that material conductivity may significantly vary as a function of energy deposition rate.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2188085},
journal = {Physics of Plasmas},
number = 4,
volume = 13,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2006},
month = {Sat Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2006}
}
  • Abstract not provided.
  • A time- and space-resolved hard x-ray source was developed as a diagnostic tool for imaging underwater exploding wires. A {approx}4 ns width pulse of hard x-rays with energies of up to 100 keV was obtained from the discharge in a vacuum diode consisting of point-shaped tungsten electrodes. To improve contrast and image quality, an external pulsed magnetic field produced by Helmholtz coils was used. High resolution x-ray images of an underwater exploding wire were obtained using a sensitive x-ray CCD detector, and were compared to optical fast framing images. Future developments and application of this diagnostic technique are discussed.
  • The results of a simulation of underwater electrical wire explosion at a current density >10{sup 9} A/cm{sup 2}, total discharge current of {approx}3 MA, and rise time of the current of {approx}100 ns are presented. The electrical wire explosion was simulated using a one-dimensional radiation-magnetohydrodynamic model. It is shown that the radiation of the exploded wire produces a thin conducting plasma shell in the water in the vicinity of the exploding wire surface. It was found that this plasma shell catches up to 30% of the discharge current. Nevertheless, it was shown that the pressure and temperature of the wiremore » material remain unchanged as compared with the idealized case of the electrical wire explosion in vacuum. This result is explained by a 'water bath' effect.« less
  • The generation of an extreme water state (130 GPa, 5000 K, and 3.4 g/cm{sup 3}) which is characterized as dense plasma at the axis of a converging shock wave is reported. A 4 kJ pulse generator was used to explode a 40 Cu-wire array, generating a cylindrical shock wave. The measured shock wave trajectory and energy deposited into the water flow were used in hydrodynamic simulations coupled with the equation of state to determine the water parameters. The temperature estimated using the emission data of water in the vicinity of the implosion axis agrees with the simulation results, indicating shockmore » wave symmetry in such extreme conditions.« less
  • Experimental and hydrodynamic simulation results of submicrosecond time scale underwater electrical explosions of planar Cu and Al wire arrays are presented. A pulsed low-inductance generator having a current amplitude of up to 380 kA was used. The maximum current rise rate and maximum power achieved during wire array explosions were dI/dt<=830 A/ns and approx10 GW, respectively. Interaction of the water flow generated during wire array explosion with the target was used to estimate the efficiency of the transfer of the energy initially stored in the generator energy to the water flow. It was shown that efficiency is in the rangemore » of 18%-24%. In addition, it was revealed that electrical explosion of the Al wire array allows almost double the energy to be transferred to the water flow due to efficient combustion of the Al wires. The latter allows one to expect a significant increase in the pressure at the front of converging strong shock waves in the case of cylindrical Al wire array underwater explosion.« less